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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Gymnophthalmidae
Bibliography of the genus Gymnophthalmus
Biodiversity of the family Gymnophthalmidae


Snake-eyed Tejus, Spectacled Forest Lizards, (Spectacled Tejus)

Natternaugentejus, Eigentliche Brillentejus

Egentlige Brilletejuer

1820 Gymnophthalmus Merrem (type species: Lacerta quadrilineata Linnaeus 1766)
1861 Blepharactisis Hallowell (type species: Blepharictisis speciosa Hallowell 1861; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1876 Epaphelus Cope (type species: Epaphelus sumichrastii Cope 1876; syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
Contents: 8 species, of which 2 (25.0%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included the species now placed in Vanzosaura.
Distribution: S. Mexico, Central America, N. South America, West Indies (Lesser Antilles).
Reported from: Antigua & Barbuda (Barbuda), Aruba, Belize, Bonaire, Brazil (Amazonas, Para, Roraima), Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Dominica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Guanaja, Isla Morat, Roatan, Utila]), Martinique, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca), Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Lucia (incl. Maria Islands), Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Margarita).

Gymnophthalmus cryptus

Cryptic Snake-eyed Teju

Kryptische Natternaugenteju

Kryptisk Brilleteju

1992 Gymnophthalmus cryptus Hoogmoed, Cole & Ayarzaguena

Remarks: See remarks under underwoodi.
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.

Gymnophthalmus leucomystax

White Snake-eyed Teju

Weisse Natternaugenteju

Hvid Brilleteju

1991 Gymnophthalmus leucomystax Vanzolini & Carvalho

Remarks: See remarks under underwoodi.
Distribution: Brazil (Roraima), Colombia, Guyana.

Gymnophthalmus lineatus

Striped Snake-eyed Teju

Gestreifte Natternaugenteju

Stribet Brilleteju

1758 Lacerta lineata Linnaeus
Gymnophthalmus lineatus Andersson 1900
1766 Lacerta quadrilineata Linnaeus (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1863 Gymnophthalmus nitidus Reinhardt & Lütken (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1885 Gymnophthalmus merremi Boulenger (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Remarks: Erroneously reported from Brazil and Surinam (Ugueto, Velozo, Sanchez, Villapol, Lasso-Alcalá, Barros & Rivas 2013).
Distribution: Bonaire, Curacao, Venezuela (Islas las Aves).

Gymnophthalmus marconaterai

Apure Snake-eyed Teju



2017 Gymnophthalmus marconaterai García-Pérez & Schargel

Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.

Gymnophthalmus pleei

Rough-scaled Snake-eyed Teju, Rough-scaled Worm Lizard


Ruskællet Brilleteju

1881 Gymnophthalmus pleei Bocourt
1881 Gymnophthalmus luetkenii Bocourt (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1965 Gymnophthalmus pleei nesydrion Thomas

Distribution: Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia (incl. Maria Islands).

Gymnophthalmus speciosus

Golden Snake-eyed Teju, (Red-tailed Ground Lizard, Red-tailed Teiid)

Goldener Natternaugenteju

Gylden Brilleteju

1861 Blepharictisis speciosa Hallowell
Gymnophthalmus speciosus Stuart 1939
1871 Tretioscincus laevicaudus Cope (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)
1876 Epaphelus sumichrastii Cope (Köhler 1996)
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti Bocourt 1881
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti Stuart 1963
1939 Gymnophthalmus birdi Stuart (Köhler 1996)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi Mertens 1952

Other common names:
sumichrasti: Sumichrast's Golden Snake-eyed Teju
Remarks: Ugueto, Velozo, Sanchez, Villapol, Lasso-Alcalá, Barros & Rivas (2013) suggested that Hummelinck's (1940) record of laevicaudus (=speciosus) from Islas las Aves may represent a misidentified lineatus. This is provisionally followed herein. Presence in Brazil reported by Avila-Pires (2005), but apparently overlooked(?) by Costa & Bernils (2015).
Distribution: Aruba, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Guanaja, Isla Morat, Roatan, Utila]), Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca), Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita).

Gymnophthalmus speciosus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Gymnophthalmus underwoodi

Smooth-scaled Snake-eyed Teju, Smooth-scaled Worm Lizard

Glattschuppige Natternaugenteju

Glatskællet Brilleteju

1958 Gymnophthalmus underwoodi Grant

Remarks: The underwoodi complex consists of three cryptic species (underwoodi, cryptus, leucomystax) of which at least underwoodi is parthenogenetic. Because not all known material can be identified to species at present, the distribution stated below may include records which could prove to be cryptus or leucomystax.
Introduced to: Antigua & Barbuda (Antigua, Barbuda), Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe (incl. Desirade, Iles des Saintes, Marie-Galante), Martinique, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Kitts & Nevis (Saint Kitts), Saint Martin, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (incl. Union Island, Saint Vincent), U.S. Virgin Islands.
Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Roraima), French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad).

Gymnophthalmus vanzoi

Roraima Snake-eyed Teju



1999 Gymnophthalmus vanzoi Carvalho

Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Para, Roraima), Guyana.