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Taxonomy of the family Lacertidae
Bibliography of the genus Lacerta
Biodiversity of the family Lacertidae








Genus
Lacerta

Eurasian Green Lizards, True Lacertid Lizards, Typical Lacertid Lizards

Eurasische Grüne Eidechsen, Halsbandeidechsen, Echte Eidechsen

Eurasiske Grønne Firben, Typiske Firben

1758 Lacerta Linnaeus (type species: Lacerta agilis Linnaeus 1758; syn. ICZN (1956): Direction 5657)
1764 Lacertus Garsault (type species: Lacerta agilis Linnaeus 1758; by subsequent designation: Fitzinger 1843)
1768 Seps Laurenti (type species: Lacerta agilis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Arnold, Arribas & Carranza 2007)
Contents: 10 species, of which 2 (20.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Gastropholis echinata, Adolfus jacksoni, A. vauereselli, and the species now placed in the genera Anatololacerta, Apathya, Archaeolacerta, Atlantolacerta, Australolacerta, Dalmatolacerta, Darevskia, Dinarolacerta, Gallotia, Hellenolacerta, Iberolacerta, Iranolacerta, Omanosaura, Parvilacerta, Phoenicolacerta, Podarcis, Scelarcis, Teira, Timon, and Zootoca. Some authors prefer to retain some of these genera as subgenera of Lacerta (e.g., Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008).
Distribution: Europe, C. Asia, Middle East.
Reported from: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Xinjiang), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes), Sporades Islands], Crete), Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Wales).

Lacerta agilis

Northern Eurasian Sand Lizard, European Fence Lizard, Sand Lizard

Zauneidechse

Markfirben

1758 Lacerta agilis Linnaeus
1768 Seps argus Laurenti (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1768 Seps caerulescens Laurenti (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1768 Seps ruber Laurenti (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1789 Lacerta pardus Razoumowsky (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1798 Seps stellatus Schrank (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1802 Lacerta arenicola Daudin [substitute name for Seps caerulescens Laurenti 1768]
1802 Lacerta laurentii Daudin [substitute name for Seps argus Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1802 Lacerta stirpium Daudin (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1804 Lacerta agilis grisea Herrmann (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1804 Lacerta anguiformis Sheppard (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1814 Lacerta europaea Pallas (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1826 Lacerta agilis erythronotus Fitzinger [substitute name for Seps ruber Laurenti 1768]
1831 Lacerta exigua Eichwald (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Zootoca exigua Eichwald 1841
Nucras ? exigua Gray 1845
Lacerta agilis exigua Boulenger 1887
1832 Lacerta chersonensis Andrzejowski (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta agilis chersonensis Boulenger 1916
1834 Lacerta sylvicola Eversmann (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1841 Lacerta viridis colchica Eichwald (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1851 Lacerta sericea Glückselig (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1856 Lacerta dilepis Lichtenstein (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1868 Lacerta italica Gistel (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1868 Lacerta kochi Gistel (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1874 Lacerta agilis ischliensis Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1874 Lacerta doniensis Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1876 Lacerta agilis maculifrons Sahlberg (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1877 Lacerta stirpium ocellata Müller (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1878 Lacerta agilis orientalis Kessler (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1878 Lacerta stirpium atrata Müller (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1886 Lacerta paradoxa Bedriaga [not Lacerta paradoxa Razoumowsky 1789] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1897 Lacerta agilis albolineata Düringen (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis annulata Werner (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis dorsalis Werner (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis immaculata Düringen (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis melanota Düringen (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis nigricans Düringen (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta agilis spinalis Werner (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1899 Lacerta agilis altaica Kascenko (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1909 Lacerta agilis kurtuana Kashchenko (Zhao & Adler 1993)
1912 Lacerta agilis bosnica Schreiber (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1912 Lacerta agilis concolor Schreiber (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1912 Lacerta agilis eremioides Schreiber (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1926 Lacerta agilis kaukasica Suchow (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1926 Lacerta agilis tauridica Suchow
1929 Lacerta boemica Suchow (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta agilis boemica Terentjev & Chernov 1936
1958 Lacerta agilis brevicaudata Peters (Basoglu & Baran 1977)
1960 Lacerta agilis grusinica Peters [substitute name for Lacerta paradoxa Bedriaga 1886]
1964 Lacerta agilis euxinica Fuhn & Vancea (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1968 Lacerta agilis ioriensis Peters & Muskheliswili (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1975 Lacerta agilis garzoni Palacios & Castroviejo (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
2008 Lacerta agilis mzymtensis Tuniyev & Tuniyev

Distribution: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Xinjiang), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), United Kingdom (England, Wales).


Lacerta bilineata

Western Green Lizard, Western Emerald Lizard

Westliche Smaragdeidechse

Vestligt Smaragdfirben

1802 Lacerta bilineata Daudin
1804 Lacerta prasina Herrmann (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1810 Lacerta chloronota Rafinesque (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
Lacerta viridis chloronotos [lapsus] Bedriaga 1886
Lacerta viridis chloronota Welch 1983
Lacerta bilineata chloronota Godinho, Crespo, Ferrand & Harris 2005
1834 Lacerta bistriata Schinz [1833-35] (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1836 Lacerta viridis maculata Bonaparte (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1836 Lacerta viridis mento-coerulea Bonaparte (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1853 Lacerta viridis cinero-nigrescens De Betta (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1853 Lacerta viridis variegata Massolongo (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1853 Lacerta viridis vulgaris Massolongo (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1857 Lacerta viridis brunneo-viridescens De Betta (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1857 Lacerta viridis concolor De Betta (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1857 Lacerta viridis versicolor De Betta (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1868 Lacerta viridis bettae Gistel [substitute name for Lacerta viridis cinereo-nigrescens De Betta 1852] (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1875 Lacerta viridis punctata Schreiber (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1875 Lacerta viridis radiata Schreiber (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1875 Lacerta viridis variolata Schreiber (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1926 Lacerta viridis fejervaryi Vasvary (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
Lacerta bilineata fejervaryi Godinho, Crespo, Ferrand & Harris 2005
1950 Lacerta viridis chloroprima Taddei (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1950 Lacerta viridis chlorosecunda Taddei (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
Lacerta bilineata chlorosecunda Godinho, Crespo, Ferrand & Harris 2005
1950 Lacerta viridis cisalpina Taddei (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1950 Lacerta viridis italica Taddei [not Lacerta italica Gistel 1868] (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1950 Lacerta viridis tiberina Taddei (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of viridis (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960), until studies on reproductive ecology, hybridogenesis, and genetics suggested that they are separate species (Nettmann & Rykena 1984; Böker 1990a, 1990b; Rykena 1991). Revalidated by Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith (1997) and supported by Joger, Amann & Veith (2001) and Böhme, Fritz, Kotenko, Dzukic, Ljubisavljevic, Tzankov & Berendonk (2007), although some authors have questioned the validity of bilineata (e.g., Mayer & Beyerlein 2002; Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008). A highly distinct genetic lineage in Western Balkan, which was previously assigned to viridis, was believed to represent bilineata by Böhme, Fritz, Kotenko, Dzukic, Ljubisavljevic, Tzankov & Berendonk (2007), but the status of all lineages in the viridis group remain unresolved (Marzahn, Mayer, Joger, Ilgaz, Jablonski, Kindler, Kumlutas, Nistri, Schneewiess, Vamberger, Zagar & Fritz 2015). Pending further studies, the Adriatic lineage is provisionally included herein under bilineata, following the former authors. See remarks regarding Italian peninsular populations under viridis.
Introduced to: Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England, Wales), USA (Kansas).
Distribution: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom (Channel Islands).


Lacerta citrovittata

Yellow-striped Green Lizard, Cycladic Green Lizard

Gelbstreifen-Smaragdeidechse

Gulstribet Smaragdfirben

1938 Lacerta viridis citrovittata Werner
Lacerta trilineata citrovittata Nettmann & Rykena 1984
Lacerta citrovittata Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché 2019

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of viridis (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960) or of trilineata (e.g., Nettmann & Rykena 1984). Raised to species status by Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché (2019).
Distribution: Greece (Aegean Islands).





Lacerta diplochondrodes

Eastern Balkan Green Lizard

Östliche Riesen-Smaragdeidechse

Østligt Stort Smaragdfirben

1952 Lacerta strigata diplochondrodes Wettstein
Lacerta trilineata diplochondrotes [sic] Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000
Lacerta diplochondrodes Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché 2019
1959 Lacerta trilineata dobrogica Fuhn & Mertens
Lacerta diplochondrodes dobrogica Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché 2019
1964 Lacerta trilineata cariensis Peters
Lacerta diplochondrodes cariensis Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché 2019
1964 Lacerta trilineata galatiensis Peters
Lacerta diplochondrodes galatiensis Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché 2019

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of strigata or trilineata (e.g., Wettstein 1952; Nettmann & Rykena 1984). Raised to species status by Kornilios, Thanou, Lymberakis, Ilgaz, Kumlutas & Leaché (2019).
Distribution: Greece (Greek mainland, Aegean Islands [Dodecanese Islands (Kos, Rhodes), North Aegean Islands (Samos)]), Turkey.





Lacerta media

Levant Emerald Lizard, Oriental Three-streaked Green Lizard, Medium Lizard

Östliche Riesen-Smaragdeidechse

Levantisk Smaragdfirben

1920 Lacerta viridis media Lantz & Cyren
Lacerta trilineata media Müller 1939
Lacerta media Terentjev & Chernov 1949
1922 Lacerta strigata wolterstorffi Mertens (Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998)
Lacerta trilineata wolterstorffi Bodenheimer 1944
Lacerta media wolterstorffi Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000
1964 Lacerta trilineata israelica Peters (Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998)
Lacerta media israelica Bauer & Günther 1995
1975 Lacerta trilineata ciliciensis Schmidtler (Wrangel 1996)
Lacerta media ciliciensis Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000
1975 Lacerta trilineata isaurica Schmidtler (Wrangel 1996)
Lacerta media isaurica Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000

Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Russia, Syria, Turkey.


Lacerta pamphylica

Pamphylian Green Lizard

Pamphylische Smaragdeidechse

Pamfylisk Smaragdfirben

1975 Lacerta trilineata pamphylica Schmidtler
Lacerta pamphylica Schmidtler 1986

Distribution: Turkey.


Lacerta schreiberi

Iberian Green Lizard, Iberian Emerald Lizard, (Schreiber's Green Lizard)

Iberische Smaragdeidechse

Iberisk Smaragdfirben

1878 Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga
Lacerta viridis schreiberi Bedriaga 1886
1884 Lacerta viridis gadovii Boulenger (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1897 Lacerta viridis ventrimaculata Dürigen (Böhme (ed.) 1984)

Distribution: Portugal, Spain.


Lacerta strigata

Caspian Green Lizard, Caucasian Emerald Lizard, Five-streaked Green Lizard

Kaspische Smaragdeidechse, Kaukasische Smaragdeidechse, Streifeneidechse

Kaspisk Smaragdfirben

1831 Lacerta strigata Eichwald
Lacerta viridis strigata De Filippi 1865
1832 Lacerta quinquevittata Menetries (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1875 ? Lacerta viridis quinque-radiata Duméril & Bibron [ex errore?] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1886 Lacerta viridis vaillanti Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1917 Lacerta viridis woosnami Boulenger (Böhme (ed.) 1984)

Remarks: Although records of strigata from Iraq were claimed to have been based on confusion with media or princeps (Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992), the presence of strigata in the country was confirmed by Afrasiab, Mohamad & Hossain (2013).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Turkey, Turkmenistan.


Lacerta trilineata

Western Balkan Green Lizard, (Giant Green Lizard, Three-lined Emerald Lizard, Three-lined Lizard, Balkan Emerald Lizard)

Westliche Riesen-Smaragdeidechse

Vestligt Stort Smaragdfirben

1886 Lacerta viridis var. trilineata Bedriaga
Lacerta trilineata Müller 1939
Lacerta strigata trilineata Wettstein 1957
1881 Lacerta viridis aurata Bedriaga [not Lacerta aurata Linnaeus 1758] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1881 Lacerta viridis fusca Bedriaga [not Lacerta fusca Daudin 1802] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1887 Lacerta viridis major Boulenger (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta major Schreiber 1912
Lacerta strigata major Werner 1939
1912 Lacerta major subcellata Schreiber (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
1935 Lacerta major hansschweizeri Müller (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta trilineata hansschweizeri Mertens & Müller 1940
1952 Lacerta strigata polylepidota Wettstein (Böhme (ed.) 1984)
Lacerta trilineata polylepidota Fuchs 1979

Remarks: Previously included citrovittata, diplochondrodes, media and pamphylica.
Distribution: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes), Sporades Islands], Crete), Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).


Lacerta viridis

Eastern Green Lizard, Eastern Emerald Lizard

Östliche Smaragdeidechse

Østligt Smaragdfirben

1768 Seps viridis Laurenti
Lacerta viridis Daudin 1802
1768 Seps sericeus Laurenti (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1768 Seps terrestris Laurenti (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1768 Seps varius Laurenti (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1802 Lacerta fusca Daudin [substitute name for Seps terrestris Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1820 Lacerta smaragdina Meisner [substitute name for Seps viridis Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1832 Lacerta elegans Andrzejowski (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1851 Lacerta cyanolaema Glückselig [substitute name for Seps viridis Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1875 ? Lacerta viridis nigra Schreiber (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1875 ? Lacerta viridis quadriradiata Schreiber (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1888 Lacerta viridis transsylvanica Kimakovicz (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1897 Lacerta viridis istriensis Werner (Marzahn, Mayer, Joger, Ilgaz, Jablonski, Kindler, Kumlutas, Nistri, Schneewiess, Vamberger, Zagar & Fritz 2015)
1897 Lacerta viridis flavescens Werner (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1897 Lacerta viridis holomelas Werner (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1897 Lacerta viridis similis Werner (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1905 Lacerta viridis intermedia Mehely (Marzahn, Mayer, Joger, Ilgaz, Jablonski, Kindler, Kumlutas, Nistri, Schneewiess, Vamberger, Zagar & Fritz 2015)
1930 Lacerta viridis brandenburgensis Hecht (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1930 Lacerta viridis magnifica Sobolewskij (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1933 Lacerta viridis meridionalis Cyren (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1950 ? Lacerta viridis udicarsica Taddei (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1986 Lacerta viridis infrapunctata Schmidtler (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
1986 Lacerta viridis paphlagonica Schmidtler (Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997)
2001 Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi Rykena, Nettmann & Mayer

Remarks: Previously confused with bilineata (see remarks under that species). Older literature records from Andorra, France, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom refer to bilineata. The validity and assignment of several nominal subspecies in Italy still needs clarification, but most populations in Italy are regarded as bilineata, following Elbing, Nettmann & Rykena (1997), with a zone of sympatry in NE. Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia (Rykena 1991; Elbing, Nettmann & Rykena 1997; Amann, Rykena, Joger, Nettmann & Veith 1997; Sindaco, Doria, Razzetti & Bernini (eds.) 2006). A distinct Adriatic lineage previously assigned to viridis has provisionally been included herein under bilineata (see remarks under bilineata). The nominal subspecies listed with a question mark in the synonymy above were included as synonyms of viridis by Mertens & Wermuth (1960), but may prove to belong in the synonymy of bilineata. The latter species is native to the Channel Islands, United Kingdom, and Green Lizards have been introduced to England, but which species they represent is unclear. Introductions of Green Lizards to USA (Kansas) apparently originate from Western Europe, and therefore represent bilineata (Deichsel & Miller 2000; Kalyabina-Hauf & Deichsel 2002). Presence in Poland needs confirmation, as there is only one observation since the middle of the 19th century (Bielawski & Ramik 1972; Elbing, Nettmann & Rykena 1997).
Distribution: Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine.