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Taxonomy of the family Boidae
Bibliography of the genus Eryx
Biodiversity of the family Boidae








Genus
Eryx

Sand Boas

Echte Sandboas

Sandboaer

1803 Eryx Daudin (type species: Boa turcica Olivier 1801)
1803 Clothonia Daudin (type species: Boa anguiformis Schneider 1801; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1830 Gongylophis Wagler (type species: Boa conica Schneider 1801; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1849 Cusoria Gray (type species: Cusoria elegans Gray 1849; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1989 Pseudogongylophis Tokar (type species: Eryx jayakari Boulenger 1888; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1989 Neogongylophis Tokar (type species: Anguis colubrina Linnaeus 1758; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
Contents: 13 species, of which 3 (23.1%) are endemic.
Remarks: Tokar (1995) revalidated Gongylophis, including three species (colubrinus, conicus, muelleri). Kluge (1993) retained Gongylophis as a synonym of Eryx, considering the recognition of Gongylophis as a valid genus as premature, and several authors have followed him (e.g., Baha el Din 2006; Noonan & Chippindale 2006; Pyron, Reynolds & Burbrink 2014; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: Africa, SE. Europe, Middle East, C. and S. Asia.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands]), India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy (Sicily), Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, North Macedonia, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

Eryx borrii

Northern Somali Sand Boa

Nordsomalische Sandboa

Nordsomalisk Sandboa

2005 Eryx borrii Lanza & Nistri

Distribution: Somalia.


Eryx colubrinus

Egyptian Sand Boa, Theban Sand Boa

Ägyptische Sandboa

Ægyptisk Sandboa, Kenyansk Sandboa (loveridgei)

1758 Anguis colubrina Linnaeus
Eryx colubrina Flower 1933
Gongylophis colubrinus Boulenger 1892
1834 Eryx thebaicus Reuss (Tokar 1995)
1842 Eryx scutata Gray (Tokar 1995)
1863 Eryx jaculus sennaariensis Jan (Kluge 1993)
1932 Eryx thebaicus loveridgei Stull (Tokar 1996)
Eryx colubrinus loveridgei Stull 1935
1933 Eryx rufescens Ahl (Tokar 1996)

Other common names:
loveridgei: Kenya Sand Boa
Remarks: A record from Yemen (Scortecci 1932) is considered unreliable and needs confirmation (Gasperetti 1988).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.


Eryx conicus

Common Sand Boa, Rough-scaled Sand Boa, Red Earth Boa, Chain Sand Boa, Common Earth Snake, (Indian Sand Boa, Russell's Sand Boa, Russell's Earth Boa, Schneider's Earth Boa)

Gefleckte Sandboa, Rauschuppen-Sandboa

Indisk Sandboa

1801 Boa Conica Schneider
Gongylophis conicus Wagler 1842
Eryx conicus Duméril & Bibron 1844
1802 Boa viperina Shaw (Stimson 1969)
1803 Boa ornata Daudin (Stimson 1969)
1830 Erix bengalensis [unjustified emendation] Guerin (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
Tortrix eryx bengalensis Schlegel 1837
1869 Eryx conicus laevis Peters (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
1951 Eryx conicus brevis Deraniyagala
1971 Eryx conicus gansi Rajendran (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)

Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Eryx elegans

Slender Sand Boa

Zentralasiatische Sandboa, Afghanische Sandboa

Centralasiatisk Sandboa

1849 Cusoria elegans Gray
Eryx elegans Blanford 1876
1916 Eryx jaculus czarewskii Nikolsky (Stimson 1969)

Remarks: Records from northeastern Iran refer to jaculus (Eskandarzadeh, Darvish, Rastegar-Pouyani & Ghassemzadeh 2013).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan.


Eryx jaculus

Western Sand Boa, Javelin Sand Boa, Spotted Sand Boa

Westliche Sandboa, Türkische Sandboa, Europäische Sandboa

Europæisk Sandboa

1758 Anguis jaculus Linnaeus
Eryx jaculus Daudin 1803
1758 Anguis cerastes Linnaeus (Stimson 1969)
Eryx cerastes Daudin 1803
1801 Boa turcica Olivier
Eryx turcicus Daudin 1803
Eryx jaculus turcicus Carevsky 1916
1831 Eryx familiaris Eichwald
Eryx jaculus familiaris Carevsky 1916
1837 Tortrix eryx Schlegel (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
1865 Eryx jaculus var. teherana Jan (Stimson 1969)
1907 Eryx persicus Nikolsky (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
Eryx johnii persicus Stull 1935
1916 Eryx jaculus proprius Carevsky (Stimson 1969)
1928 Eryx jaculus urmianus Rostombekov (Stimson 1969)

Other common names:
familiaris: Caucasian Sand Boa
persicus: Persian Red Sand Boa, Persian Sand Boa
turcicus: Turkish Sand Boa
Remarks: Some authors have regarded persicus as a subspecies of johni (e.g., Stull 1935; Stimson 1969). Records of this species from northwestern Afghanistan should probably be referred to tataricus (Leviton & Anderson 1970). A single record from Cyprus with no recent confirmation (Göcmen, Atatür, Budak, Bahar, Yildiz & Alpagut-Keskin 2009). Tokar & Obst (in Böhme, ed. 1993) erroneously mention a locality in Crete, but it is actually in Corfu, as also indicated by their map.
Distribution: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Georgia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands]), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy (Sicily), Jordan, Libya, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).


Eryx jayakari

Arabian Sand Boa

Arabische Sandboa

Arabisk Sandboa

1888 Eryx Jayakari Boulenger
1913 Eryx fodiens Annandale (Stimson 1969)

Distribution: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.


Eryx johnii

Red Sand Boa, Stump-tailed Sand Boa, Blunt-tailed Sand Boa, Brown Sand Boa, Black Earth Boa, Smooth Sand Boa, (Indian Sand Boa, John's Sand Boa, John's Earth Snake)

Indische Sandboa

Rød Sandboa

1801 Boa Johnii Russell
Clothonia johnii Gray 1842
Eryx jaculus johni Ingoldby 1923
Eryx johnii Duméril & Bibron 1844
1801 Boa anguiformis Schneider (Stimson 1969)
Clothonia anguiformis Daudin 1803
1837 Tortrix eryx indicus Schlegel (Stimson 1969)
1849 Eryx maculatus Hallowell (Stimson 1969)

Other common names:
johni: Eastern Red Sand Boa
Remarks: See under jaculus. Considered present in Iran herein, following Zarrintab, Milto, Eskandarzadeh, Zangi, Jahan, Kami, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Rajabizadeh (2017) and others, although regarded as questionable by some authors (e.g., Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson 2008; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013).
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Iran, Nepal, Pakistan.


Eryx miliaris

Desert Sand Boa, Dwarf Sand Boa, Common Dwarf Sand Boa, (Turkish Sand Boa)

Östliche Sandboa, Wüsten-Sandboa, Zwerg-Sandboa

Ørkensandboa

1773 Anguis miliaris Pallas
Eryx miliaris Eichwald 1831
Eryx jaculus miliaris Boettger 1888
1814 Eryx helluo Pallas (Stimson 1969)
1910 Eryx miliaris nogaiorum Nikolsky (Stimson 1969)
1916 Eryx miliaris incerta Carevsky (Stimson 1969)
1916 Eryx miliaris rarus Carevsky (Stimson 1969)
1916 Eryx miliaris tritus Carevsky (Stimson 1969)
1916 Eryx tataricus bogdanovi Carevsky (Stimson 1969)
1930 Eryx rickmersi Werner (Stimson 1969)

Other common names:
nogaiorum: Kalmyk Sand Boa
Remarks: See under tataricus. A single record from Afghanistan (Leviton 1959) refers to tataricus (Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms & Böhme 2016). Presence in Iran is also unconfirmed (Zarrintab, Milto, Eskandarzadeh, Zangi, Jahan, Kami, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Rajabizadeh 2017), although included for the country by several authors (e.g., Anderson 1963; Latifi 1991; Darevsky in Böhme (ed.) 1993; Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson 2008; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Majd, Yousefkhani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi & Kazemi 2015). There are also records from Iraq (Habeeb & Rastegar-Pouyani 2016; Rhadi, Mohammed, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani & Yousefkhani 2017, both as "cf. miliaris"), which most likely represent another species, considering the distance to the nearest other records in Central Asia.
Distribution: China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Eryx muelleri

West African Sand Boa, (Mueller's North African Sand Boa)

Sahara-Sandboa, Afrikanische Sandboa

Vestafrikansk Sandboa

1892 Gongylophis Muelleri Boulenger
Eryx muelleri Boulenger 1893
1938 Eryse muelleri subniger [lapsus] Angel (Tokar 1995)

Remarks: Reports from Sierra Leone (e.g., Aylmer 1922; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999) are considered erroneous (Trape & Baldé 2014).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Togo.


Eryx sistanensis

Persian Sand Boa

Persische Sandboa

Persisk Sandboa

2020 Eryx sistanensis Eskandarzadeh, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani, Zargan, Hajinourmohamadi, Nazarov, Sami, Rajabizadeh, Nabizadeh & Navaian

Distribution: Iran.





Eryx somalicus

Southern Somali Sand Boa

Südsomalische Sandboa

Sydsomalisk Sandboa

1939 Eryx somalicus Scortecci

Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia.


Eryx tataricus

Tatary Sand Boa, Tarar Sand Boa

Große Sandboa, Tatarische Sandboa

Tatarisk Sandboa

1823 Boa tatarica Lichtenstein
Eryx tataricus Carevsky 1916
1907 Eryx miliaris koslowi Bedriaga (Tokar 1986)
1907 Eryx miliaris roborowskii Bedriaga (Tokar 1986)
1916 Eryx speciosus Carevsky
Eryx tataricus speciosus Terentjev & Chernov 1940
1959 Eryx tataricus vittatus Chernov
Eryx vittatus Tokar 1989

Other common names:
vittatus: Striped Sand Boa
Remarks: McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré (1999) listed koslowi and roborowskii as synonyms of miliaris. Some authors regard speciosus as a separate species, endemic to Tajikistan (e.g., Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013). Others regard vittatus as a separate species (e.g., Tokar 1989; Szczerbak 2003; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014; Reynolds & Henderson 2018), while some regard it as a synonym or subspecies of tataricus (e.g., McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999). Szczerbak (2003) and Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco (2013) considered vittatus endemic to Tajikistan, although it may occur in Turkmenistan, according to the latter authors. Reynolds & Henderson (2018) listed the distribution of vittatus as Central Asia, from northern Iran through northern Afghanistan and Pakistan to Kyrgyzstan and extreme eastern (obviously an error - they surely meant "western"!) China. Records from northeastern Iran refer to jaculus (Eskandarzadeh, Darvish, Rastegar-Pouyani & Ghassemzadeh 2013).
Distribution: Afghanistan, China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Eryx whitakeri

Kerala Sand Boa, (Whitaker's Sand Boa)

Whitakers Sandboa

Kerala-sandboa

1991 Eryx whitakeri Das
Gongylophis whitakeri Tokar 1995

Distribution: India (Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra).