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Taxonomy of the family Elapidae [marine species]
Bibliography of the genus Hydrophis
Biodiversity of the family Elapidae [marine species]








Genus
Hydrophis

Typical Sea Snakes, (Banded Sea Snakes)

Ruderschlangen, (Plump-Seeschlangen [syn. Lapemis])

Egentlige Havslanger*

1801 Hydrophis Latreille (type species: Hydrus fasciatus Schneider 1799; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1982: Opinion 1201)
1803 Pelamis Daudin [not Pelamis Lacepede 1802 (Pisces); conservation needed, according to Campbell & Lamar (2004), but see Smith, Williams, Wallach & Chiszar (1990)] (type species: Anguis platura Linnaeus 1766; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013)
1804 Disteira Lacepede (type species: Disteira doliata Lacepede 1804; syn. Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011)
1804 Leioselasma Lacepede (type species: Leioselasma striata Lacepede 1804; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989; David & Ineich 1999)
1817 Ophinectes Rafinesque (type species: Ophinectes luteus Rafinesque 1817; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1820 Enhydris Wagler [not Enhydris Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801 (Serpentes)] (type species: Hydrophis cyanocinctus Daudin 1803)
1820 Enhydris Merrem [not Enhydris Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801 (Serpentes)] (type species: Hydrus curtus Shaw 1802; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1834 Polyodontes Lesson in Bélanger [not Polyodontes Blainville 1829 (Polychaeta)] (type species: Polyodontes annulatus Lesson 1834; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1835 Lapemis Gray (type species: Lapemis hardwickii Gray 1835; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013)
1842 Aturia Gray (type species: Aturia ornata Gray 1842; Williams & Wallach 1989)
1842 Hydrus Gray (type species: Hydrus major Shaw 1802; syn. Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011)
1849 Chitulia Gray (type species: Chitulia inornata Gray 1849)
1849 Enhydrina Gray (type species: Enhydris valakadyen Rafinesque 1817; syn. Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013)
1849 Kerilia Gray (type species: Kerilia jerdonii Gray 1849; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013)
1853 Acalyptus Dumeril [not Acalyptus Schoenherr 1836 (Insecta)] (type species: Acalyptus peronii Dumeril 1853; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1855 Astrotia Fischer (type species: Hydrophis schizopholis Schmidt 1846; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013)
1861 Pelamydoidis Fitzinger (type species: Hydrophis pelamidoides Schlegel 1837; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1896 Acalyptophis Boulenger [substitute name for Acalyptus Dumeril 1853]
1910 Pelamydrus Stejneger [substitute name for Pelamis Daudin 1803]
1921 Dolichodira Wall (type species: Hydrophis diadema Günther 1864)
1921 Melanomystax Wall (type species: Hydrophis nigrocinctus Daudin 1803; syn. Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011)
1921 Polyodontognathus Wall (type species: Hydrus cærulescens Shaw 1802)
1921 Polypholophis Wall (type species: Hydrophis neglectus Wall 1906)
1921 Porrecticollis Wall (type species: Hydrophis obscura Daudin 1803)
1921 Praescutata Wall (type species: Thalassophis viperinus Schmidt 1852; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1926 Pseudodistira Kinghorn (type species: Pseudodistira horrida Kinghorn 1926; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013*)
1926 Thalassophina Smith (type species: Thalassophis viperinus Schmidt 1852; syn. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013)
2004 Mediohydrophis Kharin (type species: Hydrophis klossi) Boulenger 1912; Kharin 2004)
Contents: 44 species, of which 9 (20.5%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Disteira: Australo-Papuan Sea Snakes
Enhydrina: Beaked Sea Snakes
Remarks: The validity of several nominal genera in the synonymy above has been disputed. Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen (2013) synonymized several nominal genera (Astrotia, Kerilia, Lapemis, Pelamis, Thalassophina) until then regarded as valid. Although followed by many, others have retained them as valid (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Also other nominal genera have been considered valid by various authors: Aturia (e.g., Kharin 1984; Stuebing 1991, 1994), Chitulia (e.g., Kharin 2005; Kharin & Dotsenko 2012; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), Disteira (e.g., McDowell 1972; Aplin & Smith 2001; David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), Leioselasma (e.g., Kharin 1984; Stuebing 1991, 1994; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), Mediohydrophis (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), and Polyodontognathus (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Lanza & Boscherini (2000) pointed out that the gramatical gender of Pelamis is feminine.
Distribution: Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean.
Reported from: American Samoa, Australia (Lord Howe Island, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia), Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang), Clipperton, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Cook Islands, Costa Rica (incl. Isla del Coco), Djibouti, Easter Island, Ecuador (incl. Galapagos Islands), El Salvador, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guatemala, Honduras, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Bacan, Bangka, Flores, Java, Kalimantan, Lingga Islands, Madura, Mios Num, Numfoor, Paternoster Islands, Riau Islands, Salawati, Sudarso Island, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Supiori, Ternate, Waigeo, Weh, Western New Guinea, Yapen), Iran, Iraq, Japan (Honshu, Bonin Islands, Izu Islands, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands], Volcano Islands), Kenya, Kermadec Islands, Kiribati, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Magdalena)], Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei), Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, New Caledonia (incl. Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Nicaragua, North Korea, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus), New Britain], Eastern New Guinea), Peru, Philippines (Cebu, Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Luzon, Marinduque, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Samar, Sulu Islands), Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal), Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape), South Korea (incl. Jejudo Island), Sri Lanka, Taiwan (incl. Pescadore Islands), Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, USA (California, Hawaii), Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen.

Hydrophis atriceps

Black-headed Sea Snake, Black-headed Banded Sea Snake, Blunt-banded Sea Snake, (Southeast Asian Sea Snake)

Schwarzkopf-Ruderschlange*

Sorthovedet Båndhavslange*

1864 Hydrophis atriceps Günther
Hydrophis fasciatus atriceps Smith 1920
Disteira fasciata atriceps Cochran 1930
1906 Hydrophis alcocki Wall (Golay & al. 1993)
1908 Disteira cincinatti Van Denburgh & Thomson (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: All specimens of fasciatus from east of the Malacca Strait, and from Thailand and southern China south to Australia refer to atriceps (David & Ineich 1999). References to atriceps from the Bay of Bengal most probably refer to fasciatus, of which atriceps was formerly regarded as a subspecies (Leviton, Wogan, Koo, Zug, Lucas & Vindum 2003). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Marinduque in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory), China (Fujian, Hainan), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Bacan, Bangka, Java, Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Weh, Western New Guinea), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea), Philippines (Luzon, Marinduque, Mindanao, Samar, Sulu Islands), Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis belcheri

Western Faint-banded Sea Snake*, (Faint-banded Sea Snake, Captain Belcher's Sea Snake)

Westliche Hell-gebänderte Ruderschlange*

Vestlig Lysbåndet Havslange*

1849 Aturia belcheri Gray
Hydrophis belcheri Günther 1864
Distira belcheri Boulenger 1896
Chitulia belcheri Kharin 2012

Remarks: Previously reported from New Guinea (e.g., Whitaker, Whitaker & Mills 1982), but presence there is doubtful (McCarthy & Warrell 1991). Some older records of belcheri (e.g., Smith 1926) refer to coggeri, czeblukovi, pachycercos, and pacificus (Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014). Presence in Micronesia is doubtful and most likely based on misidentifications or mislabelled voucher specimens (Zug 2013). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Panay in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Australia, Indonesia (Java, Sulawesi, Ternate, Waigeo), Philippines (Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Panay), Solomon Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis bituberculatus

Bitubercled Sea Snake, Two-wattled Sea Snake, (Peters' Sea Snake)

Tuberkel-Ruderschlange*

Tuberkel-havslange*

1873 Hydrophis bituberculatus Peters
Distira bituberculata Boulenger 1890
Lioselasma bituberculatus Wall 1921
Aturia bituberculata Welch 1994
Chitulia bituberculata Kharin 2005

Remarks: Previously included pachycercos (e.g., Golay & al. 1993).
Distribution: Sri Lanka, Thailand.


Hydrophis brookii

Bornean Slender-necked Sea Snake*, (Brook's Slender-necked Sea Snake, Brook's Small-headed Sea Snake, Brooke’s Sea Snake, Rajah Brooke’s Sea Snake)

Borneo-Dünnnacken-Ruderschlange*

Borneo-tyndhalshavslange*

1872 Hydrophis brookii Günther

Distribution: Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis caerulescens

Bluish Slender-necked Sea Snake, Dark Blue-banded Sea Snake, Many-toothed Sea Snake, Malacca Sea Snake, Dwarf Sea Snake, Blue Sea Snake, Blue-grey Sea Snake, Blue-green Sea Snake

Blauband-Ruderschlange*

Blå Havslange*

1802 Hydrus Cærulescens Shaw
Enhydris caerulescens Merrem 1820
Hydrophis caerulescens Gray 1842
Polyodontognathus caerulescens Wall 1921
Polyodontophis caerulescens Prater 1924
1837 Hydrophis hybrida Schlegel (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Hydrophis protervus Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Hydrophis frontalis Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Hydrophis polydonta Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1920 Hydrophis caerulescens thai Smith (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015).
Distribution: Australia (Queensland), Bangladesh, China (Guangdong, Shandong), India (Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis coggeri

Pacific Yellow-banded Sea Snake, (Slender-necked Sea Snake, Black-headed Snake, Cogger's Sea Snake, Banded Sea Snake)

Pazifische Gelbgebänderte Ruderschlange*

Pacifisk Gulbåndet Havslange*

1984 Leioselasma coggeri Kharin
Hydrophis coggeri Cogger 1986

Remarks: Presence in the Philippines is doubtful (Leviton, Brown & Siler 2014).
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia), Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia (Grande Terre), Vanuatu.


Hydrophis curtus

Short Sea Snake, Malabar Sea Snake, Spine-bellied Sea Snake, Pygmy Sea Snake, (Shaw's Sea Snake)

Kurz-Ruderschlange*

Dværghavslange*

1802 Hydrus Curtus Shaw
Enhydris curtus Merrem 1820
Lapemis curtus Gray 1842
Hydrophis curta Günther 1864
1835 Lapemis hardwickii Gray (Gritis & Voris 1990)
Hydrophis hardwickii Günther 1864
Enhydris hardwickii Boulenger 1890
Lapemis curtus hardwicki Golay & al. 1993
1827 Hydrophis flaviventris Siebold (Golay & al. 1993)
1835 Lapemis hardwickii Gray (Gritis & Voris 1990)
1837 Hydrophis pelamidoides Schlegel [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1843 Lapemis loreatus Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis loreata Günther 1864
Thalassophis loreatus Boettger 1888
1856 Hydrophis pelamidoides var. annulata Fischer (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Hydrophis problematicus Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Hydrophis propinquus Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Hydrophis abbreviatus Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Hydrophis brevis Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1871 Hydrophis fayeri Fayer (Golay & al. 1993)
1871 Hydrophis fayeriana Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
1876 Hydrophis pelamidoides var. unimaculatus Peters in Martens (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
hardwickii: Hardwicke’s Sea Snake
Remarks: Gritis & Voris (1990) concluded on the basis of variability of parietal and ventral scales that there is not support for a species distinction between hardwickii and curtus. As a consequence, they placed curtus in the synonymy of hardwickii, although curtus is a senior synonym of hardwickii. Herein, their synonymization is reversed, regarding curtus as the valid name for this species. Nevertheless, some authors still regard hardwickii as a valid species (e.g., Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Shandong), India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Flores, Java, Lingga Islands, Sudarso Island, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Western New Guinea), Iran, Japan, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, New Caledonia, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus)], Eastern New Guinea), Philippines (Gigante Islands, Luzon, Negros, Panay), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam.


Hydrophis cyanocinctus

Blue-banded Sea Snake, Banded Sea Snake, Many-banded Sea Snake, Ringed Sea Snake, Annulated Sea Snake, Dusky-chinned Sea Snake, Chittul

Blaugebänderte Ruderschlange, Streifenruderschlange

Blåbåndet Havslange*

1803 Hydrophis cyanocinctus Daudin
Enhydris cyanocinctus Merrem 1820
Leioselasma cyanocincta Boie 1826
Hydrus cyanocinctus Boie 1827
Distira cyanocincta Werner 1895
Disteira cyanocincta Rogers 1903
Lioselasma cyanocincta Wall 1921
1804 Leioselasma striata Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
Enhydris striatus Merrem 1820
1817 Hydrophis chittul Rafinesque (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrus chittul Owen 1859
1804 Leioselasma striata Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
Enhydris striatus Merrem 1820
Hydrophis striata Schlegel 1837
1849 Hydrophis aspera Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1849 Hydrophis subannulatus Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Hydrophis westermani Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1868 Hydrophis trachyceps Theobald (Golay & al. 1993)
1871 Hydrophis crassicollis Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
1871 Hydrophis tuberculata Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
Distira tuberculata Boulenger 1890
1872 Hydrophis dayanus Stoliczka (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Hydrophis tenuicollis Peters (Golay & al. 1993)
1886 Hydrophis asperrimus Murray (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Hydrophis phipsoni Murray (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Hydrophis taprobanica Haly (Golay & al. 1993)
1900 Distira saravacensis Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis saravacensis Rooij 1917
1905 Distira longissima Rosén (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Records from the Solomon Islands may refer to melanocephalus (McCoy 1980). Records from New Guinea and the Aru Islands refer to elegans (Iskandar & Colijn 2001). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Marinduque and Panay in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang), India (Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Iran, Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands]), Kiribati, Kuwait, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines (Cebu, Gigante Islands, Luzon, Marinduque, Panay, Sulu Islands), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal), South Korea (Jejudo Island), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam.


Hydrophis czeblukovi

Fine-spined Sea Snake, Geometrical Sea Snake

Dornige Ruderschlange*

Tornet Havslange*

1984 Leioselasma czeblukovi Kharin
Hydrophis czeblukovi Cogger 1986
1986 Hydrophis geometricus Smith (Rasmussen & Smith 1997)

Other common names:
geometricus: Geometrical Sea Snake
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis donaldi

Rough-scaled Sea Snake, (Donald's Sea Snake)

Rauhschuppen-Ruderschlange*

Ruskællet Havslange*

2012 Hydrophis donaldi Ukuwela, Sanders & Fry

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Hydrophis elegans

Bar-bellied Sea Snake, Elegant Banded Sea Snake, Elegant Sea Snake

Bauchgebänderte Ruderschlange*

Bugbåndet Havslange*

1842 Aturia elegans Gray
Hydrophis elegans Günther 1864
Disteira elegans Longman 1918
Leioselasma elegans Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1896 Distira grandis Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis grandis Rooij 1917

Remarks: Reported from Panay, Philippines, by Ferner, Brown, Sison & Kennedy (2001), but not included for the country by Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018). Also reported from Thailand (e.g., Tu 1974; McCarthy & Warrell 1991), but not included for the country by other works (e.g., Cox, Hoover, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2012).
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), Indonesia (Aru Islands, Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis fasciatus

Banded Slender-necked Sea Snake, Banded Small-headed Sea Snake, Striped Sea Snake, (Banded Sea Snake)

Gebänderte Ruderschlange

Båndet Tyndhalshavslange*

1799 Hydrus fasciatus Schneider
Disteira fasciata Fitzinger 1826
Hydrophis fasciata Duméril 1853
Microcephalophis fasciatus Boettger 1888
Distira fasciata Wall 1909
Aturia fasciata Wall 1921
Micromastophis fasciatus Wall 1923
1801 Hydrophis laticauda Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille (Golay & al. 1993)
1820 Hydrus chlorus Merrem (Golay & al. 1993)
1831 Pelamis lindsayi Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
Aturia lindsayi Gray 1842
1896 Hydrophis leptodira Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
1900 Distira rhombifer Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis rhombifer Boulenger 1912

Remarks: Previously included atriceps (e.g., McCarthy & Warrell 1991). All specimens of fasciatus from east of the Malacca Strait, and from Thailand and southern China south to Australia refer to atriceps (David & Ineich 1999; Iskandar & Colijn 2001). Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015).
Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Goa, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand.


Hydrophis hendersoni

Rangoon Sea Snake*

Rangoon-Ruderschlange*

Rangoon-havslange*

1903 Distira hendersoni Boulenger
Hydrophis hendersoni Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nigrocinctus (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated by Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy (2011).
Distribution: Myanmar.


Hydrophis inornatus

Plain Sea Snake, Inornate Sea Snake

Schmucklose Ruderschlange*

Ensfarvet Havslange*

1849 Chitulia inornata Gray
Hydrophis inornatus Smith 1926
Hydrophis ornatus inornatus Mittleman 1947
1849 Chitulia fasciata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1852 Thalassophis schlegelii Schmidt (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis schlegelii Fischer 1856
1859 Hydrophis manillae Owen (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis longiceps Günther (Golay & al. 1993)
1913 Distira cyanosoma Wall (Golay & al. 1993)
1929 Hydrophis inornatus var. ocellus Kinghorn (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously confused with or regarded as a synonym or subspecies of ornatus (Mittleman 1947). According to Rasmussen (1989), only the type specimen of inornatus is referred to this taxon (and that specimen may only be an abberrant ornatus), all other previous records of inornatus refer to ornatus or other species (Rasmussen 1989; Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014). However, many authors have continued to report inornatus from various localities (e.g., Ferner, Brown, Sison & Kennedy 2001; Kharin & Czeblukov 2005; Wilson 2005; Voris 2017). Kharin & Dotsenko's (2012) record of inornatus from the Arabian Sea refers to viperinus (Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014). The former authors also quoted other reports from other localities. It seems, however, that there are currently no records with precise locality data (Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014). Pending further studies, all records of inornatus, apart from the type specimen, are herein regarded as representing other species.
Distribution: Indian Ocean (without any known specific localities).


Hydrophis jerdonii

Cone-nosed Sea Snake, Saddle-backed Sea Snake, (Jerdon's Sea Snake)

Kegelnasen-Ruderschlange*

Keglesnudet Havslange*

1849 Kerilia jerdonii Gray
Hydrophis jerdonii Günther 1864
Distira jerdonii Boulenger 1890
1854 Hydrus cantori Jerdon (Golay & al. 1993)
1926 Kerilia jerdoni siamensis Smith

Remarks: Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015).
Distribution: Brunei, India (Kerala, Lakshadweep, Odisha, Tamil Nadu), Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis kingii

Spectacled Sea Snake, (King's Sea Snake)

Brillen-Ruderschlange*

Brille-havslange*

1896 Hydrophis kingii Boulenger
Disteira kingii Golay & al. 1993

Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), Indonesia (Aru Islands, Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis klossi

Selangor Sea Snake*, Greater Dusky Sea Snake, (Kloss’ Sea Snake)

Selangor-Ruderschlange*

Selangor-havslange*

1912 Hydrophis klossi Boulenger
Disteira klossi Werner 1924
Mediohydrophis klossi Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis laboutei

New Caledonian Sea Snake*, (Laboute’s Sea Snake)

Neukaledonische Ruderschlange*

Nycaledonisk Havslange*

2000 Hydrophis laboutei Rasmussen & Ineich
Chitulia laboutei Kharin & Dotsenko 2012

Distribution: New Caledonia.


Hydrophis lamberti

Siamese Sea Snake*, (Lambert’s Sea Snake)

Siamesische Ruderschlange*

Siamesisk Havslange*

1917 Hydrophis lamberti Smith
Disteira lamberti Oshima 1944
Chitulia lamberti Kharin 2012

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of ornatus (e.g., Smith 1926). Revalidated by Rasmussen (1989). A record from Saudi Arabia (Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan 2019) is regarded as doubtful, considering the far distance to other known records of the species.
Distribution: Philippines (Gigante Islands, Luzon), Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis lapemoides

Persian Gulf Sea Snake, Arabian Gulf Sea Snake

Persische Ruderschlange*

Persisk Havslange*

1849 Aturia lapemoides Gray
Hydrophis lapemoides Günther 1864
Distira lapemoides Wall 1909
Lioselasma lapemidoides [sic] Wall 1921
Disteira lapemoides Werner 1924
Chitulia lapemoides Kharin 2005
1872 Hydrophis holdsworthii Günther (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Hydrophis stewartii Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
Chitulia stewartii Kharin 2012

Remarks: Kharin (2012) regarded stewartii as a separate species.
Distribution: Bahrain, India (Gujarat, Odisha, Tamil Nadu), Iran, Kuwait, Malaysia (West Malaysia), Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates.


Hydrophis macdowelli

Small-headed Sea Snake, (McDowell's Sea Snake)

Kleinkopf-Ruderschlange*

Australsk Småhovedet Havslange*

1983 Hydrophis macdowelli Kharin

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), New Caledonia (Grande Terre), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis major

Olive-headed Sea Snake, Common Sea Snake, Greater Sea Snake

Großer Ruderschlange*

Stor Havslange*

1802 Hydrus major Shaw
Ophinectes major Rafinesque 1817
Pelamis major Boie 1826
Hydrophis major Günther 1864
Distira major Boulenger 1890
Disteira major Longman 1981
1804 Disteira doliata Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
1820 Pelamis shavii Merrem (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Hydrophis mentalis Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Disteira dumerilii Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Hydrophis lacepedei Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1905 Distira nasalis De Vis (Golay & al. 1993)
Disteira nasalis Wells & Wellington 1984
1909 Hydrophis hardwickii Werner (Golay & al. 1993)

Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island], Western Australia), Indonesia (Western New Guinea), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis mamillaris

Bombay Gulf Sea Snake, Bombay Broad-banded Sea Snake

Bombay-Ruderschlange*

Bombay-havslange*

1803 Anguis mamillaris Daudin
Typhlops mamillaris Merrem 1820
Hydrophis mamillaris Boulenger 1890
Leioselasma mamillaris Wall 1921
Distira mamillaris Wall 1909
Aturia mamillaris Welch 1994
Chitulia mamillaris Kharin 2005

Remarks: Older records from Thailand (e.g., Taylor 1965; McCarthy & Warrell 1991) refer to torquatus. Presence in the country is questionable (Cox 1991; A.R. Rasmussen in David & Ineich 1999, p. 386).
Distribution: India (Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal), Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Hydrophis melanocephalus

Black-headed Slender-necked Sea Snake, (Black-headed Sea Snake, Slender-necked Sea Snake)

Schwarzköpfige Dünnnacken-Ruderschlange*

Sorthovedet Tyndhalshavslange*

1849 Hydrophis sublaevis var. melanocephala Gray
Hydrophis melanocephalus Boulenger 1896
Microcephalophis melanocephalus Stejneger 1898
Disteira melanocephala Stejneger 1907
Disteira spiralis melanocephala Maki 1931
Hydrophis spiralis melanocephalus Klemmer 1963
Leioselasma melanocephala Kharin 1984
1901 Disteira orientalis Stejneger (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of spiralis (e.g., Maki 1931; Klemmer 1963; Gasparetti 1988; Golay & al. 1993). Treated as a valid species in most recent works (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993; Goris & Maeda 2004; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009; Rasmussen, Elmberg, Gravlund & Ineich 2011). Recorded from the Philippines (David & Ineich 1999; Rasmussen 2011), but without locality details (Leviton, Brown & Siler 2014). Presence in Thailand is unconfirmed (David & Ineich 1999), although reported by some authors (e.g., Tu & Stringer 1973; Tu 1974; McCarthy & Warrell 1991). Records from Australia (e.g., Cogger in Dunson (ed.) 1975; Storr, Smith & Johnstone 1986) refer to coggeri (Aplin & Smith 2001; Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014).
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang), Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands]), North Korea, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan (incl. Pescadore Islands), Vietnam.


Hydrophis melanosoma

Black-banded Robust Sea Snake, Black Sea Snake, Black-bodied Sea Snake, Lesser Dusky Sea Snake

Schwarze Ruderschlange*

Sort Havslange*

1864 Hydrophis melanosoma Günther
Distira melanosoma Boulenger 1896
Disteira melanosoma Phisalix 1922
1898 Hydrophis floweri Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
1900 Distira wrayi Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis wrayi Boulenger 1912

Remarks: Records from Australia are considered erroneous (Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014).
Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Madura, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea), Thailand.


Hydrophis nigrocinctus

Black-banded Sea Snake, Black-ringed Sea Snake

Schwarzband-Ruderschlange*

Sortbåndet Havslange*

1803 Hydrophis nigrocinctus Daudin
Enhydris nigrocinctus Merrem 1820
Hydrus nigrocinctus Boie 1827
Disteira nigrocincta Wall 1909
Melanomystax nigrocinctus Wall 1921
1989 Disteira walli Kharin (Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011)

Other common names:
walli: Malay Archipelago Sea Snake*, Wall's Sea Snake
Remarks: Previously included hendersoni. A record from Patani, Thailand refer to klossi and records from Burma refer to hendersoni (Rasmussen, Ineich, Elmberg & McCarthy 2011). Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) listed walli as a valid species.
Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Lakshadweep, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ternate).


Hydrophis obscurus

Northern Estuarine Sea Snake, Obscure-patterned Sea Snake, (Daudin’s Sea Snake)

Nördliche Delta-Ruderschlange*

Nordlig Deltahavslange*

1803 Hydrophis obscura Daudin
Hydrus obscurus Merrem 1820
Pelamis obscurus Merrem 1820
Leioselasma obscura Fitzinger 1827
Distira obscura Wall 1909
Porrecticollis obscurus Wall 1921
1803 Hydrophis cloris Daudin (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Liopala fasciata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis coronata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis ellioti Gray [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis latifasciata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis subcincta Gray (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Restricted to S. Asia. Records from Australia (e.g., Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983) and New Guinea (e.g., Cogger in Dunson (ed.) 1975; Whitaker, Whitaker & Mills 1982) refer to vorisi (O'Shea 1996; Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014).
Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Myanmar, Thailand.


Hydrophis ocellatus

Spotted Sea Snake

Gefleckte Ruderschlange*

Plettet Havslange*

1849 Hydrophis ocellata Gray
Distira ocellata Wall 1909
Hydrophis ornatus ocellatus Smith 1926
Chitulia ocellata Kharin 2012

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of ornatus (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Now recognized as a distinct species (e.g., Bush, Maryan, Browne-Cooper & Robinson 2000; Aplin & Smith 2001; Milton, Lukoschek & Courtney 2010; Kharin 2012).
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia).


Hydrophis ornatus

Reef Sea Snake, Ornate Sea Snake, Ornate Reef Sea Snake, Cochin Banded Sea Snake, (Spotted Sea Snake, Gray's Sea Snake)

Riff-Ruderschlange*

Indo-pacifisk Rev-havslange*

1842 Aturia ornata Gray
Hydrophis ornata Günther 1864
Thalassophis ornatus Boettger 1888
Distira ornata Boulenger 1896
Chitulia ornata Kharin 2005
1872 Hydrophis godeffroyi Peters (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Hydrophis striatus Jan in Jan & Sordelli (Golay & al. 1993)
1884 Hydrophis ocella Macleay (Golay & al. 1993)
1905 Distira andamanica Annandale (Golay & al. 1993)
1913 Distira mjobergi Lönnberg & Andersson (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis mjobergi Wells & Wellington 1984
1952 Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis Mittleman

Other common names:
maresinensis: Ryukyu Ornate Sea Snake
Remarks: Previously included ocellatus. Australian records refer to ocellatus (Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014). See also inornatus and lamberti. Presence in Kiribati (Gilbert Islands) is doubtful and most likely based on misidentifications or mislabelled voucher specimens (Zug 2013). Not mentioned for Saudi Arabia by Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan (2019).
Distribution: Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Shandong), India (Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu), Indonesia (Aru Islands, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Western New Guinea), Iran, Japan (Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands]), Kiribati, Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Myanmar, New Caledonia (Grande Terre), Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [New Britain], Eastern New Guinea), Philippines (Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Luzon), Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam.


Hydrophis pachycercos

Broad-headed Sea Snake

Breitkopf-Ruderschlange*

Bredbåndet Havslange*

1856 Hydrophis pachycercos Fischer
Distira pachycercus Boulenger 1896
Chitulia pachycercos Kharin 2012

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of belcheri (e.g., Smith 1926; Haas 1950) or bituberculatus (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated by Rasmussen, Gravlund, Nguyen & Chanhome (2008). Also recorded without exact locality from "E. Ind. Archipelago" (Rasmussen, Gravlund, Nguyen & Chanhome 2008).
Distribution: Vietnam.


Hydrophis pacificus

Pacific Faint-banded Sea Snake, Pacific Sea Snake, (Large-headed Sea Snake)

Pazifische Hell-gebänderte Ruderschlange*

Pacifisk Lysbåndet Havslange*

1896 Hydrophis pacificus Boulenger
Leioselasma pacifica Kharin 1984
1896 Distira macfarlani Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis macfarlani Rooij 1917

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of belcheri by Smith (1926), and of elegans by McDowell (1972). Revalidated by Cogger (1975).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland), Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [New Britain], Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis parviceps

Short-headed Sea Snake, (Smith's Slender-necked Sea Snake, Smith's Small-headed Sea Snake)

Kurzkopf-Ruderschlange*

Korthovedet Havslange*

1935 Hydrophis parviceps Smith

Distribution: Vietnam.


Hydrophis peronii

Horned Sea Snake, (Spiny-headed Sea Snake, Peron's Sea Snake)

Horn-Ruderschlange*

Horn-havslange*

1854 Acalyptus peronii Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Acalyptophis peronii Boulenger 1896
Hydrophis peronii Sanders, Lee, Mumpuni, Bertozzi & Rasmussen 2013
1863 Acalyptus superciliosus Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1926 Pseudodistira horrida Kinghorn (Golay & al. 1993)
Acalyptophis horrida Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), China (Guangdong), Indonesia (Salawati, Western New Guinea), Malaysia (West Malaysia), New Caledonia (Grande Terre), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea), Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis platurus

Yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelagic Sea Snake, Black-and-Yellow Sea Snake

Plättchen-Seeschlangen

Gulbuget Havslange, Sort-og-gul Havslange, Pelamide

1766 Anguis platura Linnaeus
Hydrophis platura Latreille 1802
Pelamis platurus Stolickzka 1872
Hydrus platurus Boulenger 1896
Pelamydrus platurus Stejneger 1910
1799 Hydrus bicolor Schneider (Golay & al. 1993)
Pelamis bicolor Schneider 1799
Hydrophis bicolor Fischer 1856
1817 Ophinectes luteus Rafinesque
1817 Pelamis schneideri Rafinesque (Golay & al. 1993)
1837 Hydrophis pelamis Schlegel (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Pelamis ornata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Pelamis bicolor sinuata Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis bicolor sinuata Fischer 1855
1854 Pelamis bicolor var. variegata Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)
1856 Hydrophis bicolor var. alternans Fischer (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Pelamis bicolor var. chinensis Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1862 Pelamis tricolor Bennett (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Hydrophis bicolor var. maculata Jan in Jan & Sordelli (Golay & al. 1993)
1912 Hydrus platurus ornatus Barbour (Golay & al. 1993)
1921 Hydrus platurus var. pallidus Wall (Loveridge 1957)
1921 Hydrus platurus var. subobscurus Wall (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. brunnea Deraniyagala (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. fasciata Deraniyagala (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. leucostriata Deraniyagala (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. neuricatenata Deraniyagala (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. neurileucura Deraniyagala (Loveridge 1957)
1955 Pelamis platura var. tricolor Deraniyagala [not Pelamis tricolor Bennett 1862]
2017 Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath 2017

Remarks: According to Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton (1992), this species has not been found more than 300 km from land, in spite of statements of the contrary, at least not in any case where precise data are available. A single record from Namibia of two specimen in 1996 (Branch 1998). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Marinduque and Mindoro in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: American Samoa, Australia (Lord Howe Island, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island], Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia), Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Zhejiang), Clipperton, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Cook Islands, Costa Rica (incl. Isla del Coco), Djibouti, Easter Island, Ecuador (incl. Galapagos Islands), El Salvador, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guatemala, Honduras, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Bangka, Flores, Java, Madura, Mios Num, Numfoor, Paternoster Islands, Sudarso Island, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Supiori, Ternate, Weh, Western New Guinea, Yapen), Iran, Japan (Honshu, Bonin Islands, Izu Islands, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands], Volcano Islands), Kenya, Kermadec Islands, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Magdalena)], Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei), Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [New Britain]), Peru, Philippines (Gigante Islands, Marinduque, Mindoro, Sulu Islands), Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape), South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, USA (California, Hawaii), Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen.


Hydrophis schistosus

Beaked Sea Snake, Hook-nosed Sea Snake, Valakadiyan, (Common Sea Snake)

Gewöhnliche Schnabel-Seeschlange*

Almindelig Næbhavslange*

1803 Hydrophis schistosus Daudin
Pelamis schistosus Merrem 1820
Leioselasma schistosa Fitzinger 1827
Hydrus schistosus Cantor 1847
Enhydrina schistosa Stoliczka 1870
Disteira schistosa McDowell 1972
1817 Enhydris valakadin Rafinesque (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrus valakadyn Boie 1827
Enhydrina valakadyn Stejneger 1907
Disteira valakadyn Mengden 1983
1827 Disteira russellii Fitzinger (Golay & al. 1993)
1834 Polyodontes annulatus Lesson in Bélanger (Williams & Walach 1989)
1842 Hydrophis bengalensis Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Hydrophis subfasciata Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1852 Thalassophis werneri Schmidt (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Australian populations are now considered part of zweifeli (Ukuwela, Silva, Mumpuni, Fry, Lee & Sanders 2012). Polyodontes annulatus Lesson in Bélanger 1834 was previously considered a synonym of Hydrophis caerulescens (Smith 1926; Golay & al. 1993), but more recently of Hydrophis schistosus (Williams & Wallach 1989; Iskandar & Colijn 2001).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Western New Guinea), Iran, Iraq, Madagascar, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea), Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam.


Hydrophis semperi

Lake Taal Sea Snake, (Semper's Sea Snake)

Luzon-Ruderschlange*

Luzon-havslange*

1881 Hydrophis semperi Garman
Thalassophis semperi Boettger 1888
Distira semperi Boulenger 1896
Disteira semperi Griffin 1911
Leioselasma semperi Kharin 1984

Distribution: Philippines (Luzon).


Hydrophis sibauensis

Kapuas Sea Snake, Sibau River Sea Snake

Kapuas-Ruderschlange*

Kapuas-havslange*

2001 Hydrophis sibauensis Rasmussen, Auliya & Böhme
Chitulia sibauensis Kharin & Dotsenko 2012

Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan).


Hydrophis spiralis

Narrow-banded Sea Snake, Spiral Sea Snake, Yellow Sea Snake, Blotched-backed Giant Sea Snake

Schmalgebänderte Ruderschlange*

Smalbåndet Havslange*

1802 Hydrus spiralis Shaw
Enhydris spiralis Merrem 1820
Leioselasma spiralis Boie 1826
Hydrophis spiralis Gray 1849
Hydrophis nigrocinctus spiralis Jan 1863
Distira spiralis Wall 1909
Disteira spiralis Griffin 1911
Lioselasma spiralis Wall 1921
Leiocephalus spiralis Das 1996
1826 Hydrophis brugmannii Boie (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrus brugmannii Boie 1826
1828 Hydrophis melanurus Wagler (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrus melanurus Gray 1831
Pelamis melanurus Gray 1831
1842 Hydrophis sublaevis Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Hydrophis rappii Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1864 Hydrophis robusta Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
Distira robusta Boulenger 1890
1881 Hydrophis temporalis Blanford (Golay & al. 1993)
1884 Hydrophis bishopii Murray (Golay & al. 1993)
1886 Hydrophis aurifasciata Murray (Golay & al. 1993)
1906 Hydrophis melanocinctus Wall (Smith 1926)
1926 Distira spiralis typica Raj (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included melanocephalus. Presence in the Philippines needs confirmation. It is known from a single specimen from "Mergusi" (Smith (1926), but Herre (1942) was unable to find any location in the islands by that name, so he assumed it was a mislabelled specimen. Adding to the confusion, Leviton, Brown & Siler (2014) mispelled the location as "Mergui", not to be confused the Mergui Archipelgo of Myanmar. Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015).
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Madura, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Waigeo), Iran, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, New Caledonia (Grande Terre), Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates.


Hydrophis stokesii

Large-headed Sea Snake, Malayan Sea Snake, (Spiny-headed Sea Snake, Stokes' Sea Snake)

Großkopf-Ruderschlange*

Storhovedet Havslange*

1846 Hydrus Stokesii Gray
Hydrophis stokesii Günther 1864
Distira stokesii Boulenger 1890
Astrotia stokesii Wall 1909
1846 Hydrophis schizopholis Schmidt (Golay & al. 1993)
Astrotia schizopholis Fischer 1856
1849 Hydrus annulatus Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1868 Hydrophis güntheri Theobald (Golay & al. 1993)
1871 Hydrophis granosa Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Hydrophis guttata Murray (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015).
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), India (Kerala, West Bengal), Indonesia (Aru Islands, Java, Western New Guinea), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea), Philippines (Gigante Islands), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.


Hydrophis stricticollis

Bengal Sea Snake, Collared Sea Snake, Narrow-necked Sea Snake, (Günther's Sea Snake)

Bengal-Ruderschlange*

Bengalsk Havslange*

1864 Hydrophis stricticollis Günther
Aturia stricticollis Welch 1994
Chitulia stricticollis Kharin 2005
1906 Hydrophis neglectus Wall (Golay & al. 1993)

Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Odisha, West Bengal), Myanmar, Sri Lanka.


Hydrophis torquatus

Grey Sea Snake, Garlanded Sea Snake, West Coast Black-headed Sea Snake, Wreathed Sea Snake, (Black-headed Sea Snake)

Graue Ruderschlange*

Grå Havslange*

1864 Hydrophis torquatus Günther
Distira torquata Wall 1909
Disteira torquata Werner 1924
Chitulia torquata Kharin 2012
1864 Hydrophis diadema Günther
Hydrophis torquatus diadema Smith 1920
Chitulia diadema Kharin 2012
1917 Hydrophis siamensis Smith (Golay & al. 1993)
Hydrophis torquatus siamensis Smith 1920
1920 Hydrophis torquatus aagaardi Smith
Hydrophis aagaardi Das 2006

Other common names:
aagaardi: Aagaard's Sea Snake
Remarks: Das (2006, 2010) regarded aagaardi as a separate species. Kharin (2012) regarded diadema as a separate species.
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Guangdong), Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Thailand.


Hydrophis viperinus

Viperine Sea Snake, Spotted Viperine Sea Snake, Viperine Ruddertail, (Grey Sea Snake, Schmidt's Sea Snake, Olive Sea Snake)

Vipern-Ruderschwanz

Hugorme-havslange*

1852 Thalassophis viperinus Schmidt
Hydrophis viperina Günther 1864
Distira viperina Boulenger 1896
Praescutata viperina Wall 1921
Thalassophina viperina Smith 1926
Lapemis viperinus McDowell 1972
1854 Disteira praescutata Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)
1856 Hydrophis doliata Fischer [not Disteira doliata Lacepede 1804] (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Hydrophis nigra Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Hydrophis jayakari Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Hydrophis plumbea Murray (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Erroneously recorded from the Persian Gulf (Smith 1926, and subsequent authors). The species only occurs from Pakistan to the Gulf of Oman (Joger 1984). Not mentioned for Kerala by Palot (2015). Kharin (2013) placed this species in the genus Thalassophis.
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Liaoning), India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Iran, Malaysia (Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam.


Hydrophis vorisi

Southern Estuarine Sea Snake, Plain-banded Sea Snake

Südliche Delta-Ruderschlange*

Sydlig Deltahavslange*

1984 Hydrophis vorisi Kharin

Remarks: Previously confused with obscurus (e.g., McDowell 1972; Cogger 1975; Parker 1982), a species now restricted to S. Asia (O'Shea 1996).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Hydrophis zweifeli

Sepik Beaked Sea Snake, Australian Beaked Sea Snake, (Zweifel's Beaked Sea Snake)

Papuanische Schnabel-Seeschlange*

Papuansk Næbhavslange*

1985 Enhydrina zweifeli Kharin
Hydrophis zweifeli Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey 2014

Remarks: Includes what was previously considered the Australian populations of schistosus (Ukuwela, Silva, Mumpuni, Fry, Lee & Sanders 2012). However, Rasmussen (2018) considered the species restricted to northern Papua New Guinea.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island], Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).