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Taxonomy of the family Chamaeleonidae
Bibliography of the genus Chamaeleo
Biodiversity of the family Chamaeleonidae








Genus
Chamaeleo

Typical Chameleons

Eigentliche Chamäleons*

Egentlige Kamæleoner*

1768 Chamaeleo Laurenti (type species: Chamaeleo parisiensium Laurenti 1768)
1865 Calyptrosaura Gray (type species: Chamaeleo calyptratus Dumeril & Bibron 1851; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Dilepis Gray [not Dilepis Weinland 1858 (Cestoda)] (type species: Chamaeleo dilepis Leach 1819; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Ensirostris Gray (type species: Ensirostris melleri Gray 1865; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Erizia Gray (type species: Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin 1802; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Phumanola Gray (type species: Chamaeleo namaquensis Smith 1831; syn. Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Contents: 14 species, of which 1 (7.1%) is endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Archaius, Bradypodion, Calumma, Furcifer, and Trioceros, as well as species now assigned to Kinyongia and Nadzikambia.
Distribution: Africa, S. Europe, Middle East,
Reported from: Algeria, Angola (incl. Cabinda), Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Rhodes]), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), India (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago [incl. Benguerua]), Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania (incl. Pemba, Zanzibar), Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen (incl. Socotra Archipelago: Socotra), Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Chamaeleo africanus

Sahel Chameleon, Basilisk Chameleon, Common African Chameleon

Basiliskenchamäleon

Sahelkamæleon*

1768 Chamaeleo africanus Laurenti
1768 ? Chamaeleo candidus Laurenti (Mertens 1966; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1768 ? Chamaeleo mexicanus Laurenti (Flower 1933; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1789 Chamaeleo aegiptius Bonnaterre (Mertens 1966; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1820 Chamaeleo calcaratus Merrem (Flower 1933; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1868 Chamaeleo basiliscus Cope (Flower 1933; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: Previously included calcaricarens. Records from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia are tentatively assigned to calcaricarens, following Tilbury (2010) and Glaw (2015). Records from Gabon are erroneous (Pauwels & Vande weghe 2008). The only known chameleon population in mainland Greece (Peloponnesos), until recently referred to chamaeleon, has been demonstrated to belong to africanus, most likely introduced from the Nile Delta in Egypt in the antiquity (Böhme, Bonetti & Chiras 1998; Kosuch, Vences & Böhme 1999; Dimaki, Hundsdörfer & Fritz 2008).
Introduced to: Greece.
Distribution: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan.


Chamaeleo anchietae

Angolan Chameleon, (Anchieta's Chameleon)

Angolische Chamäleon*

Angola-kamæleon*

1872 Chamaeleo anchieta Bocage
Chamaeleon anchieta Werner 1911
1950 Chamaeleo vinckei Laurent (Loveridge 1957; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleo anchietae vinckei Laurent 1952
1952 Chamaeleo anchietae marunguensis Laurent (Hillenius 1959; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1952 Chamaeleo anchietae mertensi Laurent (Hillenius 1959; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: According to Glaw (2015), records from Rwanda probably refer to other species, and specimens from Congo-Kinshasa and Tanzania are of uncertain status (Glaw 2015). However, these records are retained herein, pending further studies.
Distribution: Angola, Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Tanzania.


Chamaeleo arabicus

Arabian Chameleon

Arabische Chamäleon

Arabisk Kamæleon*

1893 Chamaeleon arabicum Matschie
Chamaeleo calcarifer arabicus Steindachner 1900
Chamaeleo chamaeleon arabicus Mertens 1966
Chamaeleo arabicus Hillenius & Gasperetti 1984

Introduced to: Oman (Masirah).
Distribution: Oman, Yemen.


Chamaeleo calcaricarens

Spurless Basilisk Chameleon

Spornlose Chamäleon*

Sporeløs Kamæleon*

1985 Chamaeleo calcaricarens Böhme

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of africanus by Largen & Spawls (2006, 2010), however, Tilbury & Tolley (2009) and Tilbury (2010) retained calcaricarens as a valid species, based on differences in hemipenial morphology.
Distribution: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia.


Chamaeleo calyptratus

Veiled Chameleon, Yemen Chameleon, Cone-headed Chameleon, (Dumeril's Chameleon)

Jemenchamäleon

Yemen-kamæleon*

1851 Chamaeleo calyptratus Dumeril & Bibron in Dumeril & Dumeril
Chamaeleon calyptratus Werner 1911
1869 Chamaeleo calcaratus Peters [not Chamaeleo calcaratus Merrem 1820] (Klaver & Böhme 1997; Tilbury 2010)
1870 Chamaeleo calcarifer Peters [substitute name for Chamaeleo calcaratus Peters 1869]
Chamaeleo chamaeleon calcarifer Hillenius 1959
Chamaeleo calyptratus calcarifer Hillenius & Gasparetti 1984

Introduced to: USA (Florida, Hawaii).
Distribution: Saudi Arabia, Yemen.


Chamaeleo chamaeleon

Mediterranean Chameleon, European Chameleon, Common Chameleon

Gewöhnliches Chamäleon

Europæisk Kamæleon, Almindelig Kamæleon

1758 Lacerta chamaeleon Linnaeus
Chamaeleon chamaeleon Werner 1911
Chamaeleo chamaeleon Mertens 1966
1768 Chamaeleo parisiensium Laurenti (Stejneger 1936; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1795 Chamaeleon mntabilis [lapsus] Meyer [substitute name for Lacerta chamaeleon Linnaeus 1758] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1802 Chamaeleon vulgaris Daudin [substitute name for Lacerta chamaeleon Linnaeus 1758] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1820 Chamaeleon carinatus Merrem [substitute name for Chamaeleo parisiensium Laurenti 1768]
1845 Chamaeleo parisiensis Gray [substitute name for Chamaeleo parisiensium Laurenti 1768] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1862 Chamaeleo cinereus Strauch (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Chamaeleon auratus Gray (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1866 ? Chamaeleon fasciatus Smith (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1880 Chamaeleo vulgaris var. recticrista Boettger (Hillenius 1978)
Chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista Mertens 1966
1887 Chamaeleo saharicus Müller (Werner 1902; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon chamaeleon saharicus Werner 1911
1900 Chamaeleon vulgaris var. musae Steindachner (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon chamaeleon musae Werner 1911
1938 Chamaeleo chamaeleon orientalis Parker (Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: The only known chameleon population in mainland Greece (Peloponnesos), until recently thought to be chamaeleon, has been shown to represent africanus, most likely introduced in the antiquity (Böhme, Bonetti & Chiras 1998; Kosuch, Vences & Böhme 1999). Populations in Crete and Chios appear to be extirpated (Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou & Foufopoulos 2008). Recently confirmed as an introduced species to Italy (Calabria) (Sperone, Crescente, Brunelli, Paolillo & Tripepi 2010), but reports from Sicily are unverified (Sindaco, Doria, Razzetti & Bernini (eds.) 2006), although earlier records are repeated continuously (Tilbury 2010; Glaw 2015). Even the established Iberian populations are now believed to have been introduced from northwestern Africa (Tilbury 2010).
Extinct in: Greece (Crete).
Introduced to: Gibraltar, Italy (incl. Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Balearic Islands [Mallorca], Canary Islands [Lanzarote]).
Distribution: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Greece (Aegean Islands: Rhodes), Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Western Sahara, Yemen.


Chamaeleo dilepis

Flap-necked Chameleon, Common African Flap-necked Chameleon, Lobed Chameleon

Lappenchamäleon, (Südafrikanisches Lappenchamäleon [syn. quilensis])

Nakkefligkamæleon, Ørekamæleon

1819 Chamaeleo dilepis Leach
Chamaeleo dilepis Mertens 1966
1820 Chamaeleo bilobus Kuhl (Duméril & Bibron 1836; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1820 Chamaeleo planiceps Merrem (Duméril & Bibron 1836; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Chamaeleon petersii Gray (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii Loveridge 1953
1865 Chamaeleon petersii var. kirkii Gray (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1866 Chamaeleo capellii Bocage (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1866 Chamaeleo dilepis var. Quilensis Bocage (syn. Broadley & Howell 1991)
Chamaeleon quilensis Bocage 1895
Chamaeleon dilepis quilensis Werner 1911
Chamaeleo quilensis Mertens 1966
1887 Chamaeleon parvilobus Boulenger
1890 Chamaeleon roperi Boulenger (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon dilepis roperi Werner 1902
1893 Chamaeleon isabellinus Günther (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleon dilepis isabellinus Werner 1911
1893 Chamaeleon ruspolii Boettger (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii Parker 1942
1903 Chamaeleo angusticoronatus Barbour (Loveridge 1929; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1942 Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis Loveridge (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1964 Chamaeleo dilepis martensi Mertens (Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Other common names:
dilepis: Common Flap-necked Chameleon, Spurred Flap-necked Chameleon
isabellinus: Shire Flap-necked Chameleon
petersi: Giant Flap-necked Chameleon
quilensis: Quilo Flap-necked Chameleon
roperi: Spurless Flap-necked Chameleon
Remarks: Klaver & Böhme (1997) indicated that roperi, and possibly other taxa, may prove to be separate species, and some authors have treated roperi as such (e.g., Pauwels & Vande weghe 2008). Status of quilensis is uncertain and under investigation (Griffin 2003), and although some authors have regarded it as a valid species (e.g., Bocage 1895; Mertens 1966; Klaver & Böhme 1997, Chirio & LeBreton 2007), many others have retained it in the synonymy of dilepis (e.g., Branch 1988; Broadley & Howell 1991; Largen & Spawls 2006; Tilbury 2010). Until a thorough review of the species complex has been made, it is retained here as a synonym of dilepis. Joger's (1990) record of from the Central African Republic refer to gracilis (Chirio & Ineich 2006). Records from Nigeria refer to necasi (Trape, Trape & Chirio 2012).
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago {Benguerua]), Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa (Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape), Tanzania (incl. Pemba, Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Chamaeleo gracilis

Graceful Chameleon, Gracile Chameleon, Slender Chameleon

Fersensporn-Chamäleon

Sporekamæleon*

1842 Chamaeleo gracilis Hallowell
Chamaeleon gracilis Werner 1911
1857 ? Chamaeleo burchelli Hallowell (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1857 Chamaeleo granulosus Hallowell (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1885 Chamaleo simoni Boettger (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1919 Chamaeleon etiennei Schmidt (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
Chamaeleo gracilis etiennei Loveridge 1929

Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda.


Chamaeleo laevigatus

Smooth Chameleon

Glatte Chamäleon*

Glat Kamæleon*

1863 Chamaeleon laevigatus Gray
Chamaeleon senegalensis laevigatus Günther 1888
Chamaeleon lavigatus [sic] Boulenger 1902
Chamaeleo senegalensis laevigatus Mertens 1966
Chamaeleo laevigatus Klaver & Böhme 1986
1887 Chamaeleon sphaeropholis Reichenow (Werner 1911; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1951 Chamaeleon senegalensis var. tibatiensis Monard (Perret & Mertens 1957; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Remarks: Although listed for Egypt (e.g., Klaver & Böhme 1997), there are no confirmed records from the country (Baha el Din 2006). Joger's (1990) record of from the Central African Republic refer to senegalensis (Chirio & Ineich 2006), but other records are know from the country (Tilbury 2010*; Glaw 2015*). Listed for Cameroon by Klaver & Böhme (1997), however, laevigatus is not expected to occur in the country (Chirio & LeBreton 2007; Tilbury 2010).
Distribution: Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.


Chamaeleo monachus

Socotran Chameleon

Sokotra-Chamäleon

Socotra-kamæleon*

1865 Chamaeleon monachus Gray
Chamaeleo monachus Mertens 1966

Distribution: Yemen (Socotra Archipelago: Socotra).


Chamaeleo namaquensis

Namaqua Chameleon

Wüstenchamäleon

Namaqua-kamæleon*

1831 Chamaeleo namaquensis Smith
Phumanola namaquensis Gray 1865
Chamaeleon namaquensis Werner 1911
Chamaeleo namaquensis Mertens 1966
1789 ? Chamaeleo capensis Bonnaterre (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1845 Chameleo tuberculiferus Gray (Duméril & Bibron 1851; Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: Angola, Namibia, South Africa (North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape).


Chamaeleo necasi

Togo Chameleon*, (Necas' Chameleon)

Togo-Chamäleon*

Togo-kamæleon*

2007 Chamaeleo necasi Ullenbruch, Krause & Böhme

Distribution: Benin, Nigeria, Togo.


Chamaeleo senegalensis

Senegal Chameleon, Smooth Savanna Chameleon

Senegal-Chamäleon*

Senegal-kamæleon*

1802 Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin
Chamaeleon senegalensis Gray 1865
1820 ? Chamaeleon subcroceus Merrem (Mertens 1966; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1825 Chamaeleo gymnocephalus Kaup [substitute name for Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin 1802] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Chamaeleon senegalensis var.? leiocephalus Gray (Werner 1902; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1887 Chamaeleon liocephalus Boettger [substitute name for Chamaeleon senegalensis var.? leiocephalus Gray 1865] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.


Chamaeleo zeylanicus

Asian Chameleon, South Asian Chameleon, Indian Chameleon, Sri Lankan Chameleon

Asiatische Chamäleon*

Asiatisk Kamæleon*, Indisk Kamæleon

1768 Chamaeleo zeylanicus Laurenti
Chamaeleo chamaeleon zeylanicus Hillenius 1959
Chamaeleo zeylanicus Klaver & Böhme 1986
1823 Chamaeleon zebra Bory de St. Vincent (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1843 Chamaeleon coromandelicus Fitzinger (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1853 Chamaeleo zeylonicus Jerdon [substitute name for Chamaeleo zeylanicus Laurenti 1768] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1865 Chamaeleon vulgaris var. marmoratus Gray (Boulenger 1887; Klaver & Böhme 1997)
1872 Chamaeleo ceylonicus Stoliczka [substitute name for Chamaeleo zeylanicus Laurenti 1768] (Klaver & Böhme 1997)

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Pakistan, Sri Lanka.