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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Elaphe
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Elaphe

Palearctic-Oriental Rat Snakes, (Racers)

Kletternattern

Palæarktisk-Orientalske Rottesnoge, Klatresnoge

1833 Elaphe Fitzinger in Wagler (type species: Elaphe parreyssii Fitzinger in Wagler 1833)
1834 Elaphis Bonaparte (type species: Elaphe parreyssii Fitzinger in Wagler 1833)
1861 Leptophidium Hallowell (type species: Leptophidium dorsale Hallowell 1860)
1864 Phyllophis Günther (type species: Phyllophis carinata Günther 1864)
1897 Spaniopholis Mocquard (type species: Spaniopholis souliei Mocquard 1897)
2002 Orthriophis Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler (type species: Cynophis moellendorffi Boettger 1886; syn. Chen, Lemmon, Lemmon, Pyron & Burbrink 2017)
Contents: 15 species, of which 2 (13.3%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included the species now placed in Archelaphe, Bogertophis, Coelognathus, Euprepiophis, Gonyosoma, Oocatochus, Oreocryptophis, Pantherophis, Pseudelaphe, Rhinechis, Senticolis, and Zamenis. Four species (cantoris, hodgsonii, moellendorffi, taeniura) were until recently placed in a separate genus, Orthriophis.
Distribution: S. Europe, Middle East, Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Beijing, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Croatia, Georgia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands]), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Tsushima Islands, Izu Islands, Ryukyu Islands [incl. Sakishima Islands, (incl. Miyako Islands, Yaeyama Islands)]), Satsunan Islands]), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, North Macedonia, Romania, Russia (incl. Kuril Islands), Serbia, Slovenia, South Korea, Syria, Taiwan (incl. Lanyu Island and Pescadore Islands), Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), Uzbekistan, Vietnam.

Elaphe bimaculata

Twin-spotted Rat Snake

Doppelfleckiger Kletternatter, Chinesische Leopardnatter

Dobbeltplettet Rottesnog

1925 Elaphe bimaculata Schmidt

Distribution: China (Anhui, Beijing, Chongqing, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang).


Elaphe cantoris

Eastern Trinket Snake, Darjeeling Trinket Snake, (Cantor's Rat Snake)

Östliche Schön-Kletternatter

Østlig Pragtrottesnog

1839 Coluber reticularis Cantor [not Coluber reticularis Daudin 1803] (Smith 1943)
1894 Coluber cantoris Boulenger
Elaphe cantoris Shaw, Shebbeare & Barker 1939
Gonyosoma cantoris Wallach 1997
Orthriophis cantoris Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal.


Elaphe carinata

East Asian Keeled Rat Snake, King Rat Snake, Stink Snake, Taiwan Stink Snake, Stinking Green Snake, Stinking Goddess

Gekielte Kletternatter

Østasiatisk Kølet Rottesnog

1864 Phyllophis carinata Günther
Elaphe carinata Stejneger 1898
1891 Coluber phyllophis Boulenger (Smith 1943)
1897 Spaniopholis Souliei Mocquard (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Elaphe carinata souliei Mell 1931
1907 Spaniopholis kreyenbergi Müller (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Elaphe kreyenbergi Pope 1929
1925 Elaphe osborni Schmidt (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Coluber osborni Werner 1929
Elaphe kreyenbergi osborni Mell 1931
1927 Coluber camillo-schneideri Vogt (Zhao & Adler 1993)
1936 Elaphe carinata ornithophaga Bourret (Smith 1943)
1962 Elaphe carinata yonaguniensis Takara
1984 Elaphe carinata deqenensis Yang & Su

Other common names:
carinata: Common Keeled Rat Snake
deqenensis: Deqen Keeled Rat Snake
yonaguniensis: Eastern Keeled Rat Snake, Yonaguni Stink Snake
Introduced to: China (Beijing).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Japan (Ryukyu Islands [Sakishima Islands]), Taiwan (incl. Lanyu Island and Pescadore Islands), Vietnam.


Elaphe climacophora

Japanese Green Rat Snake, Japanese Rat Snake

Japanische Rattennatter, Inselkletternatter

Japansk Grøn Rottesnog

1826 Coluber climacophorus Boie
Elaphe climacophora Stejneger 1907
1837 Coluber virgatus Schlegel (Stejneger 1907)

Distribution: Japan, (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Tsushima Islands, Izu Islands, Ryukyu Islands [Satsunan Islands]), Russia (Kuril Islands).


Elaphe davidi

North Chinese Rat Snake, (David's Rat Snake)

Nordchinesische Rattennatter

Nordkinesisk Rottesnog

1884 Tropidonotus davidi Sauvage
Elaphe davidi Pope 1935
1914 Coluber halli Boulenger (Zhao & Adler 1993)

Distribution: China (Beijing, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi), North Korea.


Elaphe dione

Dione Rat Snake, Dione Snake, Eastern Leopard Snake

Steppennatter

Steppesnog, (Diones Snog, Dionesnog)

1773 Coluber dione Pallas
Elaphis dione Duméril & Bibron 1854
Elaphe dione Stejneger 1907
1801 Coluber tataricus Güldenstedt (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1814 Coluber dione cumana Pallas (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1814 Coluber maeota Pallas (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1831 Coluber eremita Eichwald (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1837 Coluber macoticus Rathke (Stejneger 1907)
1910 Zamenis Pellioti Mocquard (Zhao & Adler 1993)
1914 Coluber czerskii Nikolsky (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
Elaphe dione czerskii Szczerbak 2003
1923 Elaphe dione niger Golubewa (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1929 Elaphe dione tenebrosa Sobolewskij (Böhme (ed.) 1993)

Remarks: Although previously reported from Armenia (e.g., Obst & Szczerbak in Böhme (ed.) 1993; Schulz 1996; Steward 1971), presence in the country needs confirmation (Arakelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco & Leviton 2011).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China (Anhui, Beijing, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang), Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, South Korea, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.


Elaphe hodgsonii

Himalayan Trinket Snake, (Hodgson's Rat Snake)

Himalaya-Kletternatter

Himalaya-rottesnog

1860 Spilotes hodgsonii Günther
Compsosoma hodgsonii Günther 1864
Coluber hodgsoni Boulenger 1890
Elaphe hodgsoni Shaw, Shebbeare & Barker 1939
Gonyosoma hodgsonii Wallach 1997
Orthriophis hodgsonii Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002

Distribution: China (Tibet), India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal.


Elaphe moellendorffi

Red-headed Rat Snake, Hundred Flower Snake, Flower Snake, (Moellendorff's Rat Snake, Moellendorff's Trinket Snake)

Blumen-Natter

Rødhovedet Pragtrottesnog

1886 Cynophis moellendorffi Boettger
Coluber moellendorffii Boulenger 1894
Elaphe moellendorffi Stejneger 1907
Orthriophis moellendorffi Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1934 Elaphe moellendorffi tonkinensis Bourret (Smith 1943)

Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan), Vietnam.


Elaphe quadrivirgata

Japanese Four-lined Rat Snake, Japanese Striped Rat Snake

Japanische Vierstreifennatter

Japansk Firstribet Rottesnog

1826 Coluber quadrivirgatus Boie
Compsosoma quadrivirgatum Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Elaphis quadrivirgatus Günther 1858
Elaphe quadrivirgata Stejneger 1907
1826 Coluber vulneratus Boie (Stejneger 1907)
1860 Elaphis bilineatus Hallowell (Stejneger 1907)
1860 Leptophidium dorsale Hallowell (Stejneger 1907)
1867 Elaphis quadrivirgatus atra Jan (Stejneger 1907)
1867 Elaphis quadrivirgatus interrupta Jan (Stejneger 1907)

Introduced to: New Zealand.
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Izu Islands, Ryukyu Islands [Satsunan Islands]), Russia (Kuril Islands).


Elaphe quatuorlineata

Western Four-lined Rat Snake, Four-lined Snake, Four-rayed Snake

Westliche Vierstreifennatter

Vestlig Stribesnog, (Firstribet Snog)

1789 Coluber quatuor-lineatus Lacepede
Elaphe quatuorlineata Nikolski 1916
1798 Coluber naui Donndorff (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1798 Elaphe quadristriatus Donndorff (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1802 Coluber quadrilineatus Sonnini & Latreille [substitute name for Coluber quatuor-lineatus Lacepede 1789] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1833 Elaphe pareyssii Fitzinger (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1863 Elaphis dione graeca Jan (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1881 Elaphis sauromates graeca Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1882 Elaphis sauromates münteri Bedriaga
Elaphe quatourlineata muenteri Mertens & Wermuth 1960
1912 Elaphis cervone Schreiber (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1932 Elaphe rechingeri Werner (Schulz 1996)
Elaphe longissima rechingeri Wettstein 1953
1935 Elaphe quatuorlineata praematura Werner (Schulz 1996)

Other common names:
muenteri: Myconos Four-lined Rat Snake
muenteri/praematura: Cyclades Four-lined Rat Snake
quatuorlineata: Western Four-lined Rat Snake
rechingeri: Amorgos Rat Snake, (Amorgos Aesculapian Snake)
Remarks: Previously included sauromates. Status of the form rechingeri is uncertain. Some authors regard it as synonym of E. q. muenteri (e.g., Schulz 1996) or as a subspecies of quatuorlineata. Others treat it as a subspecies or synonym of Zamenis longissimus (e.g., Wettstein 1953), and some even as a full species (e.g., Clark 1994, followed by Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Reports from Sicily are regarded as erroneous (Sindaco, Doria, Razzetti & Bernini [eds.] 2006; Venchi & Sindaco 2007).
Distribution: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands]), Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia.


Elaphe sauromates

Sarmatian Rat Snake, Eastern Four-lined Rat Snake, Blotched Rat Snake

Sarmatische Kletternatter, Östliche Vierstreifennatter, Fleckennatter

Sarmatisk Rottesnog, Østlig Stribesnog

1814 Coluber sauromates Pallas
Elaphis sauromates Duméril 1853
Elaphe sauromates Cope 1861
Coluber quatourlineatus sauromates Boulenger 1894
Coluber dione var. sauromates Nikolski 1906
Elaphe quatuorlineata sauromates Bird 1936
1814 Coluber alpestris Pallas (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1832 Coluber cereus Dvigubskij (Helfenberger 2001)
1832 Coluber fulvus Dvigubskij (Helfenberger 2001)
1832 Coluber taeniothys Fischer (Helfenberger 2001)
1832 Coluber xanthogaster Andrzejowski (Helfenberger 2001)
1833 Elaphe parreyssii Fitzinger in Wagler (Helfenberger 2001)
1838 Coluber poecilocephalus Brandt (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to urartica. Formerly regarded itself as a subspecies of quatuorlineata. Revalidated as a separate species by Helfenberger (2001).
Distribution: Bulgaria, Greece, Israel, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea).


Elaphe schrenckii

Amur Rat Snake, Russian Rat Snake

Amurnatter

Russisk Rottesnog

1873 Elaphis schrenckii Strauch
Elaphe schrenckii Stejneger 1907
1916 Coluber anomalus Boulenger
Elaphe anomalus Sowerby 1930
Elaphe schrenckii anomala Pope 1934
1923 Elaphe schrenckii besenbruchi Müller (Helfenberger 2001)
1984 Elaphe maculata Ma & Zong (Schulz 1988; Helfenberger 2001)

Other common names:
anomala: Southern Amur Rat Snake, Siberian Rat Snake
schrenckii: Northern Amur Rat Snake
Remarks: The taxon anomala was revalidated as a separate species by Helfenberger (2001), but synonymized again with schrenckii on the basis of lack of genetic differentiation by An, Park, Lee, Kim, Lee & Min (2010). Nevertheless, Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) still listed anomala as a valid species, but without discussion.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Beijing, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Zhejiang), Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, South Korea.


Elaphe taeniura

Stripe-tailed Rat Snake, Striped Trinket Snake, Stripe-tailed Racer, Black-tailed Racer, Beauty Snake, (Striped Racer, Cave Racer)

Gestreifte Schön-Kletternatter

Stribet Pragtrottesnog, Taiwan-rottesnog (friesi)

1861 Elaphe taeniurus Cope "1860"
Coluber taeniurus Boulenger 1890
Elaphis taeniurus Günther 1864
Orthriophis taeniurus Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1879 Elaphis yunnanensis Anderson (Smith 1943)
Elaphe taeniura yunnanensis Schmidt 1927
Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1885 Elaphis grabowskyi Fischer (Smith 1943)
Elaphe taeniura grabowskyi Smith 1930
Orthriophis taeniurus grabowskyi Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1895 Coluber schmackeri Boettger
Elaphe schmackeri Stejneger 1907
Elaphe taeniura schmackeri Welch 1988
Orthriophis taeniurus schmackeri Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1899 Coluber taeniurus ridleyi Butler
Elaphe taeniura ridleyi Welch 1988
Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1905 Coluber vaillanti Mocquard (Smith 1943)
Elaphe taeniura vaillanti Schmidt 1927
1926 Coluber taeniurus friesi Werner
Elaphe taeniura friesi Tiedemann & Grillitsch 1999
Orthriophis taeniurus friesi Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
1937 Coluber tæniurus pallidus Rendahl [not Coluber pallidus Linnaeus 1758] (Schulz 2010)
1996 Elaphe taeniura mocquardi Schulz
Orthriophis taeniurus mocquardi Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002
2010 Orthriophis taeniurus helfenbergeri Schulz [substitute name for Coluber tæniurus pallidus Rendahl 1937]
Elaphe taeniura helfenbergeri Chen, Lemmon, Lemmon, Pyron & Burbrink 2017 [by implication]
2010 Orthriophis taeniurus callicyanous Schulz
Elaphe taeniura callicyanoa Chen, Lemmon, Lemmon, Pyron & Burbrink 2017 [by implication]

Other common names:
callicyanoa: Vietnamese Striped-tailed Rat Snake
friesi: Taiwan Striped-tailed Rat Snake
grabowskyi: Indonesian Striped-tailed Rat Snake
helfenbergeri: Thai Striped-tailed Rat Snake
mocquardi: Mocquard's Striped-tailed Rat Snake
ridleyi: Cave Rat Snake, Cave Racer
schmackeri: Ryu Kyu Striped-tailed Rat Snake, Sakishima Beauty Snake
taeniura: Chinese Striped-tailed Rat Snake
yunnanensis: Yunnan Striped-tailed Rat Snake, Yunnan Striped Trinket Snake
Remarks: Presence in Korea is doubtful and needs confirmation (Szyndlar 1984; Zhao & Adler 1993). Presence in Singapore needs confirmation. Although present in the past, it has not been reported recently (Baker & Lim 2008). Only a single record from Russia (Kudrjavtsev & Mamet 1989).
Extinct in: Singapore.
Introduced to: China (Beijing), New Zealand, South Africa (Gauteng, Western Cape).
Distribution: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, West Bengal), Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands [incl. Sakishima Islands (incl. Miyako Islands, Yaeyama Islands)]), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Russia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.


Elaphe urartica

Urartian Rat Snake

Urartäische Kletternatter

Urartisk Rottesnog

2019 Elaphe urartica Jablonski, Kukushkin, Avci, Bunyatova, Ilgaz, Tuniyev & Jandzik in Jablonski, Kukushkin, Avci, Bunyatova, Kumlutas, Ilgaz, Polyakova, Shiryaev, Tuniyev & Jandzik

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of sauromates.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey.





Elaphe zoigeensis

Zoige Rat Snake

Zoige-Rattennatter

Zoige-rottesnog

2012 Elaphe zoigeensis Huang, Ding, Burbrink, Yang, Huang, Ling, Chen & Zhang

Distribution: China (Sichuan).