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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Geoemydidae
Bibliography of the genus Rhinoclemmys
Biodiversity of the family Geoemydidae


Neotropical Wood Turtles, Neotropical Forest Terrapins

Amerikanische Erdschildkröten

Neotropiske Skovskildpadder

1835 Rhinoclemmys Fitzinger (type species: Testudo dorsata Schoepff 1801)
1863 Callopsis Gray (type species: Geoclemmys annulata Gray 1860; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)

Contents: 10 species, of which 2 (20.0%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included in the genus Geoemyda (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977). Yasukawa, Hirayama & Hikada (2002) placed the species areolata and rubida in a separate genus, Chelopus. This arrangement has not been generally followed.
Distribution: Mexico, Central America, N. and E. South America.
Reported from: Belize, Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Maranhao, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rio de Janeiro, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.

Rhinoclemmys annulata

Brown Wood Turtle, Brown Land Terrapin, Tropical Land Terrapin, Brown Land Turtle

Braune Erdschildkröte

Brun Skovskildpadde

1860 Geoclemmys annulata Gray
Clemmys annulata Strauch 1862
Rhinoclemys annulata Gray 1863
Chelopus annulatus Cope 1865
Nicoria annulata Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda annulata Siebenrock 1909
Callopsis annulata Smith 1976
1876 Chelopus gabbii Cope (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys gabbi Günther in Godman & Salvin 1885
Nicoria gabbii Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda gabbii Siebenrock 1909
Rhinoclemmys gabbii Allee 1926

Distribution: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.

Rhinoclemmys areolata

Furrowed Wood Turtle, Furrowed Land Terrapin

Gefurchte Erdschildkröte

Furet Skovskildpadde

1851 Emys areolata Dumeril & Bibron in Dumeril & Dumeril
Malaclemmys concentrica areolata Gray 1856
Clemmys areolata Strauch 1862
Chelopus areolatus Cope 1865
Nicoria punctularia var. areolata Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda punctularia areolata Siebenrock 1909
Geoemyda areolata Wettstein 1934
Rhinoclemys areolata McDowell 1964
Callopsis areolata Smith & Smith 1975

Remarks: Yasukawa, Hirayama & Hikada (2002) placed this species and rubida in a separate genus, Chelopus. This arrangement was not followed by other authors (e.g., Vetter 2005).
Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan).

Rhinoclemmys diademata

Maracaibo Wood Turtle



1934 Geoemyda punctularia diademata Mertens
Callopsis punctularia diademata Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Geomyda punctularia diademata Ernst 1978
Rhinoclemys diademata Pritchard 1979
Rhinoclemmys punctularia diademata Freiberg 1981

Remarks: Previously regarded as subspecies of punctularia (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.

Rhinoclemmys flammigera

Upper Orinoco Spotted-legged Turtle



1985 Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera Paolillo
Rhinoclemmys flammigera Barrio-Amorós & Narbaiza 2008

Distribution: Venezuela.

Rhinoclemmys funerea

Black Wood Turtle, Black River Turtle, Black Terrapin


Sort Skovskildpadde

1876 Chelopus funereus Cope
Emys funerea Günther in Godman & Salvin 1885
Geoemyda funerea Dunn 1930
Rhinoclemys funerea McDowell 1964
Callopsis funerea Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
1930 Geoemyda costaricensis Kanberg (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Distribution: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.

Rhinoclemmys funerea
© Rune Midtgaard

Rhinoclemmys melanosterna

Colombian Wood Turtle

Kolumbianische Erdschildkröte

Colombiansk Skovskildpadde

1861 Geoclemmys melanosterna Gray
Clemmys melanosterna Strauch 1862
Rhinoclemmys melanosterna Gray 1863
Nicoria punctularia var. melanosternum Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda punctularia melanosternum Siebenrock 1909
Callopsis punctularia melanosterna Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Rhinoclemmys punctularia melanosterna Freiberg 1981

Remarks: Previously regarded as subspecies of punctularia (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama.

Rhinoclemmys nasuta

Large-nosed Wood Turtle, Large-nosed Terrapin



1902 Nicoria nasuta Boulenger
Geoemyda nasuta Siebenrock 1909
Geoemyda punctularia nasuta Mertens 1954
Callopsis punctularia nasuta Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Callopsis nasuta Ernst 1978
Rhinoclemys nasuta Pritchard 1979
Rhinoclemmys punctularia nasuta Freiberg 1981

Remarks: Previously regarded as subspecies of punctularia (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador.

Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima

Painted Wood Turtle, Mexican Wood Turtle, Tropical Wood Turtle, Sierra Wood Turtle, Ornate Terrapin, Red Turtle


Malet Skovskildpadde

1856 Emys pulcherrima Gray
Clemmys pulcherrima Strauch 1862
Callichelys? pulcherrima Gray 1863
Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima Gray 1873
Chelopus pulcherrimus Cope 1887
Nicoria punctularia var. pulcherrima Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda punctularia pulcherrima Siebenrock 1909
Geoemyda pulcherrima pulcherrima Wettstein 1934
Callopsis pulcherrima Smith & Smith 1975
1868 Emys incisa Bocourt
Chelopus incisus Bocourt 1876
Nicoria punctularia var. incisa Boulenger 1889
Clemmys incisa Strauch 1890
Geoemyda punctularia incisa Siebenrock 1909
Geoemyda pulcherrima incisa Wettstein 1934
Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima incisa Smith & Taylor 1966
Callopsis pulcherrima incisa Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Rhinoclemys pulcherrima incisa Pritchard 1979
1873 Rhinoclemmys bocourti Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1873 Rhinoclemmys frontalis Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1930 Geoemyda manni Dunn
Geoemyda pulcherrima manni Wettstein 1934
Callopsis pulcherrima manni Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Rhinoclemys pulcherrima manni Pritchard 1979
1978 Callopsis pulcherrima rogerbarbouri Ernst
Rhinoclemys pulcherrima rogerbarbouri Pritchard 1979

Other common names:
incisa: Incised Wood Turtle
manni: Central American Wood Turtle
pulcherrima: Guerrero Wood Turtle
rogerbarbouri: Western Mexican Wood Turtle
Remarks: Three species of this genus (diademata, melanosterna, nasuta) were previously regarded as subspecies of punctularia (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Introduced to: Mexico (Veracruz), USA (Florida).
Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora), Nicaragua.

Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima
© Rune Midtgaard

Rhinoclemmys punctularia

Eastern Spotted-legged Turtle, Guiana Wood Turtle, Spotted-legged Terrapin, Labaria Turtle, Amazon Wood Turtle



1802 Testudo punctularia Daudin
Emys punctularia Schweigger 1812
Chersine punctularia Merrem 1820
Clemmys punctularia Fitzinger 1835
Chelopus punctularius Cope 1865
Nicoria punctularia Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda punctularia Siebenrock 1909
Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia Fróes 1957
Callopsis punctularia punctularia Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
1820 Chersine planitia Merrem (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1824 Emys dorsualis Spix (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1863 Geoclemys callocephalus Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Clemmys callocephala Strauch 1865
Rhinoclemys callocephala Gray 1873
1863 Rhinoclemys bellii Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Rhinoclemmys scabra var. bellii Gray in Sowerby & Lear 1872
1873 Rhinoclemmys lunata Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Geoemyda punctularia lunata Mertens 1954
Callopsis punctularia lunata Smith, Smith & Sawin 1976
Rhinoclemmys punctularia lunata Fretey, Hoogmoed & Lescure 1977
1873 Rhinoclemmys ventricosa Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Remarks: Previously included flammigera. It is unclear whether the Rio de Janeiro population represents an introduction or a natural population (Siciliano, Moura, Tavares, Silva de Amorim & Matias 2014). Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2017) regarded it as introduced, which is followed herein. A record from Espirito Santo (Costa & Bérnils 2018) is provisionally also regarded as an introduction.
Introduced to: Brazil (Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro), USA (Florida).
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Maranhao, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Piaui, Roraima, Tocantins), French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.

Rhinoclemmys punctularia
© Henrik Bringsøe

Rhinoclemmys rubida

Mexican Spotted Wood Turtle, Mexican Spotted Terrapin, Oaxaca Wood Terrapin

Rückenfleckiger Erdschildkröte

Mexicansk Skovskildpadde

1870 Chelopus rubidus Cope
Geoclemmys rubida Gray 1870
Emys rubida Günther in Godman & Salvin 1885
Nicoria rubida Boulenger 1889
Clemmys rubida Strauch 1890
Geoemyda rubida Siebenrock 1909
Rhinoclemys rubida McDowell 1964
Callopsis rubida rubida Smith & Smith 1975
1870 Rhinoclemmys mexicana Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Chelopus mexicana Bocourt 1876
Chelopus mexicanus Sumichrast 1882
Emys mexicana Günther in Godman & Salvin 1885
1953 Geoemyda rubida perixantha Mosimann & Ra bb()
Rhinoclemmys rubida perixantha Smith & Taylor 1966
Callopsis rubida perixantha Smith & Smith 1975
Chelopus rubidus perixanthus Bour 2002

Other common names:
perixantha: Colima Wood Turtle
rubida: Oaxaca Wood Turtle
Remarks: Yasukawa, Hirayama & Hikada (2002) placed this species and areolata in a separate genus, Chelopus. This arrangement was not followed by other authors (e.g., Vetter 2005).
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca).