Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates
Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: November 9th, 2023.

Taxonomy of the family Agamidae
Bibliography of the genus Trapelus
Biodiversity of the family Agamidae


Afro-Asian Ground Agamas, Plain Agamas


Afro-Asiatiske Ørkenagamer

1817 Trapelus Cuvier (type species: Agama mutabilis Merrem 1820)
1843 Eremioplanis Fitzinger (type species: Trapelus aegyptius Duvernoy in Cuvier 1848; syn. Wermuth 1967)
1843 Planodes Fitzinger [not Planodes Newman 1842 (Insecta: Coleoptera)] (type species: Agama agilis Olivier 1804; syn. Wermuth 1967)
1843 Trapeloidis Fitzinger (type species: Lacerta sanguinolenta Pallas 1814; syn. Wermuth 1967)
Contents: 12 species, of which 1 (8.3%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included in the genus Agama (e.g., Wermuth 1967).
Distribution: N. Africa, Middle East, C. Asia.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Chad, China (Xinjiang), Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), India (Gujarat, Rajasthan), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Trapelus agilis

Brilliant Ground Agama, Brilliant Agama, Slender Agama, Common Field Agama, (Desert Agama)

Schlankagame, Steppenagame (sanguinolentus)

Pragt-ørkenagam, Steppeagam (sanguinolentus)

1804 Agama agilis Olivier
Agama inermis agilis Doumergue 1901
Trapelus agilis Moody 1980
1814 Lacerta sanguinolenta Pallas
Agama sanguinolenta Dvigubsky 1832
Trapelus sanguinolentus Eichwald 1841
Podorrhoa sanguinolenta Fitzinger 1943
Agama agilis sanguinolenta Wettstein 1951
Trapelus agilis sanguinolentus Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
1823 Agama aralensis Lichtenstein (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
Trapelus sanguinolentus aralensis Tuniyev, Dusej & Flärd 1999
1831 Agama oxiana Eichwald (syn. of sanguinolentus, fide Wermuth 1967)
1885 Agama isolepis Boulenger (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
Agama agilis isolepis Boulenger 1885
1899 Agama kirmanensis Nikolsky (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
1907 Agama kirmanensis var. brevicauda Nikolsky (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
2000 Trapelus agilis khuzistanensis Rastegar-Pouyani
2000 Trapelus agilis pakistanensis Rastegar-Pouyani

Other common names:
khuzistanensis: Khuzistan Ground Agama
pakistanensis: Pakistan Ground Agama
sanguinolentus: Steppe Agama
Remarks: Taxonomically a disputed species, which traditionally has been divided into three subspecies (agilis, isolepis, sanguinolentus) added by two more, recently described, subspecies (khuzistanensis, pakistanensis). Some authors have regarded the first three forms as separate species (e.g., Ananjeva 1981; Ananjeva, Guo & Wang 2011; Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006; Ananjeva & Tsaruk 1987; Boulenger 1885; Glandt 2010; Moody 1980; Nikolsky 1915; Szczerbak 2003; Zhao & Adler 1993; Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms & Böhme 2016; Kamali 2020). Four subspecies are currently considered valid (agilis, khuzistanensis, pakistanensis, sanguinolentus), while isolepis is regarded as a synonym of the subspecies agilis (Rastegar-Pouyani 1999, 2000; Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson 2008).
The type locality given by Olivier (1804) as the vicinity of Baghdad, Iraq, is regarded as erroneous, since there has been no reliable records from Iraq since then (Rastegar-Pouyani 1999). Arabian records of agilis are apparently based on misidentified flavimaculatus or persicus (Arnold 1986; Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992). According to Anderson (1999), Schmidt's (1953) record from Yemen [as isolepis] is based on a misidentified Pseudotrapelus sinaitus, which following current taxonomy corresponds to Pseudotrapelus neumanni, the only member of this genus found in Yemen.
Distribution: Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang), India (Gujarat, Rajasthan), Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Trapelus agnetae

North Arabian Plain Agama, (Desert Agama)

Nordarabische Wüstenagame

Nordarabisk Ørkenagam

1929 Agama agnetae Werner
Trapelus pallidus agnetae Disi, Modrý, Necas & Rifai 2001
Trapelus agnetae Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz 2011
1971 Agama pallida haasi Werner (Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz 2011)

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz (2011), but still treated as a subspecies of pallidus by some authors (e.g., Werner 2016).
Distribution: Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria.

Trapelus boehmei

Moroccan Plain Agama

Marokkanische Wüstenagame

Marokkansk Ørkenagam

2011 Trapelus boehmei Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz

Distribution: Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara.

Trapelus flavimaculatus

Yellow-spotted Agama, Blue-headed Agama

Gelbfleckiger Wüstenagame

Gulplettet Ørkenagam

1835 Trapelus flavimaculatus Rüppell
Agama flavimaculata Rüppell 1845
1896 Agama jayakari Anderson (Arnold 1980, 1986)
Trapelus jayakari Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan 2019

Remarks: Reports from Egypt (e.g., Saleh 1997) refer to savignii (Baha el Din 2006). Saleh (1997) synonymized flavimaculatus with savignii, but without discussion. Wagner & Böhme (2007) rejected the synonymization. Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan (2019) regarded Trapelus jayakari as a separate species, but without discussion. Presence in Kuwait, although reported by Sindaco & Jeremchenko (2008), is regarded as doubtful herein, following Amr, Alenezi, Al-Sayegh & Baker (2021), who did not include the species for the country.
Distribution: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.

Trapelus megalonyx

Afghan Ground Agama, Ocellate Ground Agama

Afghanische Wüstenagame

Afghansk Ørkenagam

1864 Trapelus megalonyx Günther
Agama megalonyx Boulenger 1885
1935 Agama ruderata baluchiana Smith (Rastegar-Pouyani 2000)
Trapelus ruderatus baluchiana Rastegar-Pouyani 1998

Other common names:
baluchianus: Baluch Ground Agama
Remarks: A taxon with a history of confusion, previously regarded as either a synonym or subspecies of ruderatus, or as a separate species. Revalidated by Rastegar-Pouyani (2000).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan.

Trapelus mutabilis

North African Desert Agama, Changeable Agama

Nordafrikanische Wüstenagame

Nordafrikansk Ørkenagam

1820 Agama mutabilis Merrem
Trapelus mutabilis Wagler 1830
1823 Agama deserti Lichtenstein (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama gularis Reuss (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama inermis Reuss (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama leucostygma Reuss (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama loricata Reuss (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama nigrofasciata Reuss (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1833 Agama pallida Reuss (Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz 2011)
Agama ruderata pallida Wettstein 1928
Agama mutabilis pallida Mertens 1967
Trapelus pallidus Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992
Trapelus mutabilis pallidus Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz 2011
1848 Trapelus aegyptius Duvernoy in Cuvier (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1885 Agama latastii Boulenger (Barts & Wilms 1997)
1893 Agama aspera Werner (Barts & Wilms 1997)
2011 Trapelus mutabilis poppeki Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz

Other common names:
pallidus: Pale Agama, Pallid Agama
Remarks: Many authors have regarded mutabilis and pallidus as separate species, more or less provisionally (e.g., Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992; Schleich, Kästle & Kabish 1996; Baha el Din 2006; Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008; Werner 2016), although some authors (e.g., Pasteur & Bons 1960, Wermuth 1967) have regarded pallidus as a synonym or subspecies of mutabilis. The two forms are here considered subspecies of mutabilis, following Wagner, Melville, Wilms & Schmitz (2011). The ranges of the two forms are separated by the Nile, with mutabilis found to the west, and pallidus to the east (Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992; Baha el Din 2006; Wagner & Böhme 2007). Records from east of Amman (Jordan) refer to agnetae, previous regarded as a synonym of pallidus. Both species occur in Jordan, with pallidus reaching the eastern limit of its distribution south of the Dead Sea in the Arabah (=Arava) Valley, which forms part of the border between Israel and Jordan (Disi, Modry, Necas & Rifai 2001).
Previously included the populations now assigned to boehmei. Moroccan records refer to boehmei (Damas-Moreira, Tome, Harris, Maia & Salvi 2014), and this is presumably also the case with Mauritanian and Western Saharan records, which are treated as such herein. Whether mutabilis is present in Algeria seems unclear, since at least some records represent boehmei, but old records of mutabilis are provisionally retained as this species herein.
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Jordan, Libya, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia.

Trapelus persicus

Persian Ground Agama, Persian Agama

Persische Wüstenagame

Persisk Ørkenagam

1881 Agama persica Blanford [not Stellio persicus Anderson 1872] (Arnold 1986)
Trapelus persicus Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992
1966 Agama blanfordi Anderson [substitute name for Agama persica Blanford 1881] (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
1969 Agama persica fieldi Haas & Werner
Agama blanfordi fieldi Werner 1971
Trapelus fieldi Disi 2011

Remarks: Taxonomic history confused. See remarks under ruderatus. Regarded as conspecific with agilis by Anderson (1966). Disi (2011) treated fieldi as a separate species.
Distribution: Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria.

Trapelus rubrigularis

Red-throated Ground Agama, Red-throated Agama


Rødstrubet Ørkenagam

1875 Trapelus rubrigularis Blanford
Agama rubrigularis Boulenger 1885

Distribution: Pakistan.

Trapelus ruderatus

Horny-scaled Agama, Spotted Ground Agama, Syrian Agama, (Olivier's Agama)


Ruskællet Ørkenagam

1804 Agama ruderata Olivier
Trapelus ruderatus Anderson 1872
1865 Agama lessonae De Filippi (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)
Trapelus lessonae Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
1895 Agama microtympanum Werner (Rastegar-Pouyani 1998)

Other common names:
lessonae: Lesson's Agama
Remarks: Previously included megalonyx. According to Rastegar-Pouyani (2000), the type specimen of ruderatus is a subadult persicus, for which reason he applied the next available name, lessonae, to the species traditionally known as ruderatus, and the name ruderatus to the species traditionally known as persicus (ruderatus has priority over persicus). Although some authors have followed this arrangement (e.g., Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002; Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson 2008), others have rejected it in order not to destabilize traditional taxonomy (e.g., Anderson 1999; Disi 2011; Ananjeva, David, Barabanov & Dubois 2013; Safaei-Mahroo & al. 2015). The traditional taxonomy is followed herein.
A single record from Saudi Arabia (Anderson 1896) probably refers to T. pallidus haasi (Arnold 1986). Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna (2000) included Israel in the distribution of ruderatus, however, it was not listed by Bouskila (2004).
Distribution: Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.

Trapelus savignii

Egyptian Sand Agama, (Savigny's Agama)

Ägyptische Wüstenagame

Ægyptisk Ørkenagam

1837 Agama savignii Dumeril & Bibron
Phrynopsis savignyi Fitzinger 1843 [substitute name for Agama savignii Duméril & Bibron 1837]
Trapelus savignii Moody 1981

Remarks: For unknown reasons, Saleh (1997) synonymized savignii with flavimaculatus. His inclusion of the latter species in the fauna of Egypt must be referred to savignii (Baha el Din 2006).
Distribution: Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel.

Trapelus savignii
© Henrik Bringsøe

Trapelus schmitzi

Chadian Plain Agama, (Schmitz' Agama)

Tschadische Wüstenagame

Tchadisk Ørkenagam

2007 Trapelus schmitzi Wagner & Böhme

Remarks: Not mentioned for Algeria by Beddek (2017) or by Rouag & Ziane (2023).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad.

Trapelus tournevillei

Dune Agama, Erg Agama

Dünenagame, Gescheckte Agame


1880 Agama tournevillei Lataste
Agama flavimaculata tournevillei Pasteur & Bons 1960
Trapelus tournevillei Moody 1981

Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia.