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Taxonomy of the family Elapidae [terrestrial species]
Bibliography of the genus Naja
Biodiversity of the family Elapidae [terrestrial species]








Genus
Naja

Typical Cobras

Echte Kobras, Hutschlangen, (Wasserkobras [syn. Boulengerina])

Egentlige Kobraer

1768 Naja Laurenti (type species: Naja lutescens Laurenti 1768)
1830 Aspis Wagler (type species: Coluber naja Linnaeus 1758)
1830 Uraeus Wagler (type species: Coluber haje Linnaeus 1758)
1831 Tomyris Eichwald (type species: Tomyris oxiana Eichwald 1831)
1885 Boulengerina Dollo (type species: Boulengerina stormsi Dollo 1886; syn. Wüster, Crookes, Ineich & Mane 2007)
1923 Limnonaja Schmidt (type species: Boulengerina christyi Boulenger 1904)
1944 Paranaja Loveridge (type species: Naia anomala Sternfeld 1917; syn. Wüster, Crookes, Ineich & Mane 2007)
2009 Afronaja Wallach, Wüster & Broadley (type species: Naja nigricollis Reinhardt 1843; syn. Wallach, Wüster & Broadley 2009)
Contents: 34 species, of which 7 (20.6%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Boulengerina: Water Cobras
Paranaja: Burrowing Cobra
Remarks: Research during the past decades has revealed that this genus includes a much larger number of species than previously thought. For a long time the genus was believed to contain four African species (haje, nigricollis, nivea, melanoleuca) and one Asiatic (naja), but many former subspecies or synonyms of these five species are now recognized as separate species. In addition, several new species have been described, and the nominal genera Boulengerina (annulata, christyi) and Paranaja (multifasciata) are now included in Naja (Nagy, Vidal, Vences, Branch, Pauwels, Wink & Joger 2005). David & Vogel (2010) expressed doubt regarding the synonymization of Boulengerina with Naja, and retained both Boulengerina and Paranaja as valid, but the conclusions of Wüster, Crookes, Ineich & Mane (2007) supported the synonymization. Nevertheless, Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) treated Boulengerina as a valid genus, including Paranaja as a synonym, as well as Naja melanoleuca. They also regarded Afronaja and Uraeus as valid genera, but all without discussion or references. Other authors have followed these arrangements (e.g., Ceríaco, Sá, Bandeira, Valério, Stanley, Kuhn, Marques, Vindum, Blackburn & Bauer 2016).
Distribution: Africa, Middle East, Central and South Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola (incl. Cabinda), Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Macau, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Alor, Bali, Bangka, Belitung, Flores, Java, Kalimantan, Komodo, Lembata, Lingga Islands, Lombok, Madura, Penida, Riau Islands, Rinca, Sumatra, Sumbawa), Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago), Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines (Bohol, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit, Culion], Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, Leyte, Luzon, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Samar), Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe (Sao Tome), Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Pemba, Zanzibar), Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island), Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Naja anchietae

Southwest African Cobra, (Anchieta's Cobra)

Anchieta-Kobra

Sydvestafrikansk Kobra

1879 Naja anchietae Bocage
Naja haie anchietae Mertens 1937
Naja annullifera anchietae Broadley 1995
Uraeus anchietae Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1921 Naja anchietae barotseensis Angel (Broadley 1995)

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Broadley & Wüster (2004). Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which anchietae was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Naja annulata

Ringed Water Cobra, Banded Water Cobra

Gebänderte Wasserkobra

Båndet Vandkobra

1877 Naja annulata Buchholz & Peters
Boulengerina annulata Mocquard 1897
1884 Aspidelaps bocagei Sauvage (Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley 2018)
1886 Boulengerina stormsi Dollo
Boulengerina annulata stormsi Loveridge 1931

Other common names:
annulata: Western Ringed Water Cobra
stormsi: Eastern Ringed Water Cobra, Lake Tanganyika Water Cobra
Remarks: Previously placed in a separate genus, Boulengerina. See further remarks above, under the genus.
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia.


Naja annulifera

African Banded Cobra, Snouted Cobra

Gebänderte Uräusschlange

Snudekobra

1854 Naja haje annulifera Peters
Naja annulifera Primor & Slotkin 1978
Uraeus annuliferus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously included anchietae. Raised to species status by Broadley (1995), although already Primor & Slotkin (1978) had treated it as such. Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which annulifera was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Botswana, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Naja arabica

Arabian Cobra

Arabische Kobra

Arabisk Kobra

1932 Naja haie arabica Scortecci
Naja arabica Trape, Chirio, Broadley & Wüster 2009
Uraeus arabicus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which arabica was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.


Naja ashei

East African Spitting Cobra, (Ashe's Spitting Cobra)

Ostafrikanische Speikobra

Østafrikansk Spyttekobra

2007 Naja ashei Wüster & Broadley
Afronaja ashei Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously regarded as a colour phase of nigricollis. Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which ashei was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.


Naja atra

Chinese Spitting Cobra, Chinese Cobra, (Indochinese Spitting Cobra)

Chinesische Kobra

Kinesisk Spyttekobra

1842 Naja atra Cantor
Naja tripudians atra Peters in Martens 1876
Naja naja atra Stejneger 1907
Naja kaouthia atra Deraniyagala
1859 Naja tripudians scopinucha Cope (Golay & al. 1993)
1876 Naja tripudians unicolor Peter in Martens (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Records from Thailand and Vietnam are based on misidentifications (Teynié & David 2007).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong [incl. Nan Ao Island], Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Macau, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Laos, Taiwan, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Naja christyi

Congolese Water Cobra, (Christy's Water Cobra)

Christys Wasserkobra

Congolesisk Vandkobra

1904 Boulengerina christyi Boulenger
Limnonaja christyi Schmidt 1923
Naja christyi Nagy, Vidal, Vences, Branch, Pauwels, Wink & Joger 2005

Remarks: Previously placed in a separate genus, Boulengerina. See further remarks above, under the genus. Angola is not considered part of the distribution herein, for although it has been listed for the country (e.g., Spawls & Branch 1995; David & Ineich 1999), it was not included by Branch (2018).
Distribution: Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa.


Naja crawshayi

Katanga Spitting Cobra

Katanga-Speikobra

Katanga-spyttekobra

1893 Naja nigricollis var. crawshayi Günther
Naja crawshayi Broadley & Cotterill 2004
Afronaja crawshayi Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1895 Naja nigricollis occidentalis Bocage (tentative synonym)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nigricollis (e.g., Broadley 1968, Golay & al. 1993). Provisionally regarded as a valid species herein, following Broadley & Cotterill (2004) and Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014). The exact distribution boundaries between nigricollis and crawshayi are unclear, since many authors continue to treat crawshayi as a synonym of nigricollis, due to the absence of an updated revision of this group of cobras. Records of nigricollis from Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Malawi, Namibia, and Zambia are tentatively treated as crawshayi herein, pending further studies.
Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which crawshayi was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Gabon, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia.


Naja guineensis

Black Forest Cobra

Schwarze Waldkobra

Sort Skovkobra

2018 Naja guineensis Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley

Remarks: This species was previously regarded as populations of melanoleuca (Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley 2018). Records of melanoleuca from the Bijagos Archipelago are herein provisionally regarded as representing guineensis.
Distribution: Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo.





Naja haje

Egyptian Cobra, Brown Cobra, (Black Cobra)

Uräusschlange

Ægyptisk Kobra, Aspiskobra, Cleopatras Slange

1758 Coluber haje Linnaeus
Vipera haje Daudin 1803
Naja haje Merrem 1820
Uraeus haje Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1768 Cerastes candidus Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1789 Coluber candissimus Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
1873 Naja haje viridis Peters (Golay & al. 1993)
1885 Naja haje nigra Müller [not Naja nigra Gray 1830] (Golay & al. 1993)
1989 Naja haje legionis Valverde (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
legionis: Moroccan Cobra
Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which haje was included, along with other species. Previously included anchietae, annulifera, arabica, and the populations now assigned to senegalensis. The name Black Cobra should be avoided, since it has also been used for melanoleuca and oxiana.
Distribution: Algeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara.


Naja kaouthia

Monocellate Cobra, Bengal Cobra, Monocled Cobra, (Siamese Cobra, Thai Cobra)

Monokelkobra

Monokelkobra

1830 Naja tripudians fasciata Gray [not Naja fasciata Laurenti 1768]
1831 Naja kaouthia Lesson
Naja naja kaouthia Smith 1940
1839 Naja larvata Cantor (Golay & al. 1993)
1986 Naja kaouthia suphanensis Nutphand (Wüster, Thorpe, Cox, Jintakune & Nabhitabhata 1995)
1991 Naja naja combodia Khole (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Wüster & Thorpe (1992a), after having been considered a subspecies of naja for many years. Previously included sagittifera. Reports from the Andaman Islands refer to sagittifera (Das 1999). Kramer's (1977) record from Nepal refer to naja (W. Wüster in David & Ineich 1999, p. 387), but kaouthia has subsequently been recorded from the country (Schleich & Kästle (eds.) 2002).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.


Naja katiensis

Brown Spitting Cobra, West African Brown Spitting Cobra, Katian Spitting Cobra, Western Pallid Spitting Cobra

Westafrikanische Braune Speikobra

Vestafrikansk Spyttekobra, Vestlig Rød Spyttekobra

1922 Naja nigricollis var. katiensis Angel
Naja mossambica katiensis Broadley 1968
Naja katiensis Hughes & Barry 1969
Afronaja katiensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1968 Naja trilepis Roman (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which katiensis was included, along with other species. Presence in Niger needs confirmation (Trape & Mané 2015). Listed for Gambia by Spawls & Branch (1995) and Chirio & LeBreton (2007), but not by Emms, Jambang, Bahl, Mankali, Paziaud & Barnett (2007).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo.


Naja mandalayensis

Burmese Spitting Cobra, Mandalay Cobra

Burma-Speikobra

Burmesisk Spyttekobra

2000 Naja mandalayensis Slowinski & Wüster

Distribution: Myanmar.


Naja melanoleuca

Central African Forest Cobra, Black-and-white-lipped Cobra, Black-lipped Cobra, Black-and-white Cobra, (Black Cobra)

Zentralafrikanische Waldkobra, Schwarzweiße Kobra

Centralafrikank Skovkobra, Sort-og-hvidlæbet Kobra, (Sortlæbet Kobra)

1857 Naja haie melanoleuca Hallowell
Naja melanoleuca Matschie 1893
Boulengerina melanoleuca Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1885 Naja haje leucosticta Fischer (Golay & al. 1993)
Naja leucosticta Bethencourt-Ferreira 1930
1979 Naja melanoleuca aurata Stucki-Stirn (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Now restricted to Central Africa. Previously included subfulva and the populations now assigned to guineensis, peroescobari, and savannula. Two specimens are known from Ghana, but without locality data, so they are not included in the distribution map. The name Black Cobra should be avoided, since it has also been used for haje and oxiana.
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Gabon, Nigeria.


Naja mossambica

Mozambique Spitting Cobra, M'fezi

Mosambik-Speikobra

Sydøstafrikansk Spyttekobra

1854 Naja mossambica Peters
Naja nigricollis mossambica Boulenger 1896
Afronaja mossambica Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Broadley (1968). Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which mossambica was included, along with other species. Older records from Egypt of mossambica refer to nubiae (Wüster & Broadley 2003).
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Tanzania (incl. Pemba, Zanzibar), Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Naja multifasciata

Burrowing Cobra, Fossorial Cobra

Wühlkobra

Gravekobra

1902 Naia multifasciata Werner
Elapechis multifasciatus Witte 1933
Paranaja multifasciata Loveridge 1944
Naja multifasciata Wüster, Crookes, Ineich, Mané, Pook, Trape & Broadley 2007
Boulengerina multifasciata Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1904 Elapechis duttoni Boulenger
Paranaja multifasciata duttoni Laurent 1956
Naja multifasciata duttoni Wüster, Crookes, Ineich, Mané, Pook, Trape & Broadley 2007
1917 Naia anomala Sternfeld
Paranaja multifasciata anomala Loveridge 1944
Naja multifasciata anomala Wüster, Crookes, Ineich, Mané, Pook, Trape & Broadley 2007

Remarks: Previously placed in a separate genus, Paranaja. See further remarks above, under the genus.
Distribution: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gabon.


Naja naja

Indian Spectacled Cobra, Spectacled Cobra, Indian Cobra, Common Cobra, Binocellate Cobra

Brillenschlange

Brilleslange, Indisk Kobra

1758 Coluber Naja Linnaeus
Vipera naja Daudin 1803
Naia naia Günther 1864
Naja naja Stejneger 1907
1768 Naja brasiliensis Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1768 Naja fasciata Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
Naja tripudians fasciata Elter 1981
1768 Naja lutescens Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1768 Naja maculata Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1768 Naja nonnaja Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1788 Coluber caecus Gmelin in Linnaeus (Golay & al. 1993)
Naja tripudians caeca Boulenger 1896
Naja naja caeca Griffin 1909
1788 Coluber rufus Gmelin in Linnaeus (Golay & al. 1993)
1789 Coluber brasiliae Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
1789 Coluber peruvii Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
1803 Vipera naja Daudin (Golay & al. 1993)
1820 Naja tripudians Merrem [new name for Coluber Naja Linnaeus 1758] (Golay & al. 1993)
1830 Naja nigra Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1945 Naja naja gangetica Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)
1945 Naja naja madrasiensis Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)
1960 Naja naja indusi Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)
1961 Naja naja bombaya Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)
1961 Naja naja karachiensis Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)
1974 Naja naja ceylonicus Chatman & Di Mari (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included a number of subspecies and synonyms (naja, atra, kaouthia, oxiana, philippinensis, sagittifera, samarensis, siamensis, sputatrix, sumatrana), as well as the populations now assigned to mandalayensis, all of which are now regarded as separate species.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Naja nana

Dwarf Water Cobra

Zwerg-Wasserkobra

Dværg-vandkobra

2020 Naja nana Collet & Trape

Distribution: Congo-Kinshasa.





Naja nigricincta

Western Barred Spitting Cobra, Barred Spitting Cobra, Zebra Spitting Cobra, Zebra Snake

Zebra-Speikobra

Zebra-spyttekobra

1940 Naja nigricollis nigricincta Bogert
Naja mossambica nigricincta Broadley 1968
Naja nigricincta Haagner, Branch & Haagner 2000
Afronaja nigricincta Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1955 Naja nigricollis woodi Pringle (Wüster, Crookes, Ineich & Mane 2007)
Naja mossambica woodi Broadley 1968
Naja woodi Bauer & Branch 2001
Naja nigricincta woodi Wüster, Crookes, Ineich, Mané, Pook, Trape & Broadley 2007

Other common names:
woodi: Black Spitting Cobra, Southwestern Black Spitting Cobra, Western Black Spitting Cobra
Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which nigricincta was included, along with other species. Wüster, Crookes, Ineich, Mané, Pook, Trape & Broadley (2007) presented evidence that nigricincta and woodi are distinct from nigricollis, of which they were previously treated as subspecies. Already Haagner, Branch & Haagner (2000) treated nigricincta as a separate species, and Bauer & Branch (2001) and Griffin (2003) regarded woodi as separate, too. However, the latter arrangement was not supported by evidence (Dobiey & Vogel 2007).
Distribution: Angola, Namibia, South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape).


Naja nigricollis

Black-necked Spitting Cobra, Black-necked Cobra

Schwarzhals-Speikobra, (Afrikanische Speikobra)

Sorthalset Spyttekobra

1843 Naja nigricollis Reinhardt
Afronaja nigricollis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1955 Naja nigricollis atriceps Laurent (Broadley & Howell 1991; Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which nigricollis was included, along with other species. Previously included the populations now assigned to ashei, crawshayi, katiensis, nigricincta, nubiae, and pallida.
The exact distribution boundaries between nigricollis and crawshayi are unclear, since many authors continue to treat crawshayi as a synonym of nigricollis, due to the absence of an updated revision of this group of cobras. Records of nigricollis from Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Malawi, Namibia, and Zambia are tentatively treated as crawshayi herein, pending further studies.
Older records from Egypt and parts of Sudan refer to nubiae (Wüster & Broadley 2003). Status of the population in Darfur, Sudan, needs further studies (Wüster & Broadley 2007). Older records from Somalia refer to pallida or ashei (Wüster & Broadley 2007).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda.


Naja nivea

Yellow Cobra, Cape Cobra

Kapkobra

Gul Kobra

1758 Coluber niveus Linnaeus
Vipera nivea Daudin 1803
Naja nivea Boie 1827
Uraeus niveus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1820 Vipera flava Merrem (Golay & al. 1993)
Naia flava Boulenger 1887
1838 Naja gutturalis Smith (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Naja intermixta Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Naja haje capensis Jan (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
Buttermilk Cobra (colour morph)
Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which nivea was included, along with other species.
Distribution: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape).


Naja nubiae

Nubian Spitting Cobra

Nubische Speikobra

Nubisk Spyttekobra

2003 Naja nubiae Wüster & Broadley
Afronaja nubiae Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which nubiae was included, along with other species. Older records from Egypt of mossambica, pallida, and nigricollis refer to nubiae (Wüster & Broadley 2003).
Distribution: Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Niger, Sudan.


Naja oxiana

Central Asian Cobra, Transcaspian Cobra, Caspian Cobra, Oxus Cobra, Acellate Cobra, (Black Cobra)

Zentralasiatische Kobra, Mittelasiatische Kobra

Centralasiatisk Kobra

1831 Tomyris oxiana Eichwald
Naja oxiana Strauch 1868
Naja naja oxiana Stejneger 1907

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Wüster & Thorpe (1992a). Records from Kyrgyzstan (e.g., Golay & al. 1993) are regarded as erroneous (David & Ineich 1999). It appears that the only reliable records of oxiana from India are from Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (Wüster 1998; Whitaker & Captain 2004). Reports from other Indian states (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand) are probably based on specimens of naja which lacked a hood mark (Wüster 1998), and are tentatively regarded as such herein. The name Black Cobra should be avoided, since it has also been used for haje and melanoleuca.
Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir), Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Naja pallida

Eastern Pallid Spitting Cobra, Pink Spitting Cobra, Red Spitting Cobra, Pale Cobra

Rote Speikobra

Rød Spyttekobra, Østlig Rød Spyttekobra

1896 Naja nigricollis var. pallida Boulenger
Naja mossambica pallida Broadley 1968
Naja pallida Hughes 1983
Afronaja pallida Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Some authors recognize the subgenus Afronaja as a separate genus, in which pallida was included, along with other species. Regarded for many years as a subspecies, first of nigricollis (e.g. Boulenger 1896, Parker 1949), and later of mossambica (e.g. Broadley 1968, Joger 1984). Now recognised as a separate species (Branch 1979, Broadley 1983, Broadley & Howell 1991, Golay 1985, Largen & Rasmussen 1993). Older records from Egypt and Niger (e.g., Hughes 1983) refer to nubiae (Wüster & Broadley 2003).
Distribution: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania.


Naja peroescobari

São Tomé Cobra

São-Tomé-Kobra

São Tomé-kobra

2017 Naja peroescobari Ceríaco, Marques, Schmitz & Bauer

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of melanoleuca (Ceríaco, Marques, Schmitz & Bauer 2017).
Distribution: Sao Tome & Principe (Sao Tome).


Naja philippinensis

Northern Philippine Cobra

Nördliche Philippinenkobra

Nordfilippinsk Kobra

1922 Naja naja philippinensis Taylor
Naja philippinensis Wüster & Thorpe 1990

Distribution: Philippines (Catanduanes, Lubang, Luzon, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro).


Naja sagittifera

Andaman Cobra

Andamanische Kobra

Andamansk Kobra

1913 Naja tripudians var. sagittifera Wall
Naja kaouthia sagittifera Deraniyagala 1960
Naja naja sagittifera Leviton 1968
Naja sagittifera Wüster, Thorpe, Cox, Jintakune & Nabhitabhata 1995

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of kaouthia (e.g., Deraniyagala 1960; Golay & al. 1993), or of naja (e.g., Leviton 1968). Revalidated by Wüster, Thorpe, Cox, Jintakune & Nabhitabhata (1995).
Distribution: India (Andaman Islands).


Naja samarensis

Southeastern Philippine Spitting Cobra, Visayan Cobra, Samar Cobra

Visayas-Kobra

Sydøstfilippinsk Spyttekobra

1861 Naja tripudians samarensis Peters
Naia samarensis Boulenger 1896
Naja naja samarensis Taylor 1922
Naja kaouthia samarensis Deraniyagala 1960
Naja sputatrix samarensis Deraniyagala 1960

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Wüster & Thorpe (1990).
Distribution: Philippines (Bohol, Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, Leyte, Mindanao, Samar).


Naja savannula

West African Banded Cobra

Westafrikanische Savannenkobra

Vestafrikansk Savannekobra

2018 Naja savannula Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley

Remarks: This species was previously regarded as populations of melanoleuca (Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley 2018).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo.





Naja senegalensis

Senegalese Cobra

Senegalkobra

Senegalkobra

2009 Naja senegalensis Trape, Chirio, Broadley & Wüster
Uraeus senegalensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: This species represents populations previously assigned to haje. Some authors recognize the subgenus Uraeus as a separate genus, in which senegalensis was included, along with other species. Although recorded from Mauritania (e.g., Spawls & Branch 1995, as haje; Chippaux 2001, as haje) and likely to occur there, presence in this country has not yet been confirmed (Padial 2006, as haje).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo.


Naja siamensis

Siamese Spitting Cobra, Siamese Cobra, (Indochinese Spitting Cobra)

Siamesische Speikobra, Indochina-Speikobra

Siamesisk Spyttekobra

1768 Naja siamensis Laurenti
1980 Naja naja siamensis Nutphand [not Naja siamensis Laurenti 1768] (David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004)
1982 Naja naja isanensis Nutphand in Thumwipat & Nutphand (Wüster, Warrell, Cox, Jintakune & Nabhitabhata 1997)
Naja sputatrix isanensis Lingenhöle & Trutnau 1989

Remarks: A species long confused with atra, kaouthia, naja, and sputatrix (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated by Wüster & Thorpe (1994).
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.


Naja sputatrix

Southern Indonesian Spitting Cobra, Javanese Spitting Cobra, (Equatorial Spitting Cobra)

Indonesische Speikobra

Sydindonesisk Spyttekobra

1827 Naja sputatrix Boie
Naja tripudians sputatrix Boulenger 1896
Naja naja sputatrix Stejneger 1907
Naja kaouthia sputatrix Deraniyagala 1960
1842 Naja leptocoryphaea Berthold (Golay & al. 1993)
Naia tripudians leptocoryphaea Jan 1863
1844 Naja tripudians sondaica Schlegel in Müller & Schlegel [part] (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Revalidation as a separate species suggested by Wüster & Thorpe (1989). Records from Thailand (e.g., Warrell 1986) refer to other species, e.g. siamensis (Wüster & Thorpe 1989; Wüster & Thorpe 1994). Previously also confused with sumatrana. Presence in Sulawesi is doubtful and needs confirmation, since only a single voucher specimen is available from the island (Lang & Vogel 2005).
Distribution: Indonesia (Alor, Bali, Bangka, Belitung, Flores, Java, Komodo, Lembata, Lombok, Madura, Penida, Riau Islands, Rinca, Sumbawa).


Naja subfulva

Brown Forest Cobra, Savanna Black-and-White Cobra, Eastern Forest Cobra

Braune Waldkobra

Brun Skovkobra

1955 Naja melanoleuca subfulva Laurent
Naja subfulva Chirio & Ineich 2006

Remarks: Raised to status as a separate species by Wüster, Chirio, Trape, Ineich, Jackson, Greenbaum, Barron, Kusamba, Nagy, Storey, Hall, Wüster, Barlow & Broadley (2018), although regarded as such already by Chirio & Ineich (2006), based on an allegedly forthcoming revision ("Broadley & al. in prep."), which refers to the first mentioned publication. That publication also lists specimens from "Sudan", which presumably refers to present day South Sudan. Sudan is not considered part of the distribution herein.
Introduced to: South Africa (Western Cape).
Distribution: Angola Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago), Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo), South Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.





Naja sumatrana

Sunda Spitting Cobra, Sumatran Spitting Cobra, Sumatran Cobra, Sumatran Black Cobra, (Equatorial Spitting Cobra)

Sunda-Speikobra, Sumatra-Speikobra, Goldene Speikobra

Sunda-spyttekobra

1844 Naja tripudians sondaica Schlegel in Müller & Schlegel [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1887 Naja tripudians sumatrana Müller
Naja naja sumatrana Kopstein 1935
Naja sumatrana Wüster & Thorpe 1989
1896 Naia tripudians leucodira Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Naia naja leucodira Mertens 1934
1896 Naja tripudians miolepis Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Naja naja miolepis Griffin 1909
1899 Naja tripudians paucisquamis Peracca (Golay & al. 1993)
Naja tripudians paucisquamosa [sic] Bedot 1909
Naja naja paucisquamis Barbour 1912
1961 Naja sputatrix malayae Deraniyagala (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: A species long confused with kaouthia (e.g. in Thailand - see David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004) and with sputatrix.
Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Kalimantan, Lingga Islands, Riau Islands, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Philippines (Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit, Culion, Palawan], Singapore, Thailand.