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Taxonomy of the family Lamprophiidae
Bibliography of the genus Psammophis
Biodiversity of the family Lamprophiidae








Genus
Psammophis

Old World Sand Snakes and Grass Snakes, Sun Snakes, Sand Racers, (Whip Snakes)

Sandrennnattern

Sandsnoge

1819 Macrosoma Leach in Bowdich [not Macrosoma Huebner 1818 (Insecta)] (type species: Coluber elegans Shaw 1802)
1826 Psammophis Boie [substitute name for Macrosoma Leach in Bowdich 1819]
1838 Taphrometopon Brandt (type species: Coluber lineolatus Brandt 1838; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1854 Chorisodon Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril (type species: Chorisodon sibericum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854, by monotypy; syn. Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1854 Monodiastema Bibron in Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril (type species: Chorisodon sibericum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854, by monotypy; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1868 Phayrea Theobald (type species: Phayrea isabellina Theobald 1868; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1872 Amphiophis Bocage (type species: Amphiophis angolensis Bocage 1872, by monotypy; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1924 Mike Werner (type species: Mike elegantissima Werner 1924; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
Contents: 34 species, of which 3 (8.8%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Dromophis. Some authors regard Rhamphiophis as a synonym of Psammophis (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Taphrometopon was regarded as a valid genus by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014).
Distribution: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola (incl. Cabinda), Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Java), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago [incl. Benguerua]), Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman (incl. Masirah), Pakistan, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands), Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Zanzibar), Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Psammophis aegyptius

Sahara Sand Snake, Egyptian Sand Snake

Sahara-Sandrennnatter

Sahara-sandsnog

1958 Psammophis aegyptius Marx
Psammophis schokari aegyptius Kramer & Schnurrenberger 1963

Remarks: Regarded by some authors as a subspecies or a synonym of schokari (e.g., Hughes 1999), but most recent works have treated it as a separate species (e.g., Bouskila 2004; Baha el Din 2006; Rato, Brito, Carretero, Larbes, Shacham & Harris 2007; Vasconcelos Goncalves, Martínez-Freiría, Crochet, Geniez, Carranza & Brito 2018). In the distribution map of aegyptius, Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco (2013) plotted a locality in Chad, but they did not make any reference to this locality in the text.
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel, Libya, Niger.


Psammophis afroccidentalis

West African Sand Snake, West African Whip Snake

Westafrikanische Sandrennnatter

Vestafrikansk Sandsnog

2019 Psammophis afroccidentalis Trape, Böhme & Mediannikov in Trape, Crochet, Broadley, Sourouille, Mané, Burger, Böhme, Saleh, Karan, Lanza & Mediannikov 2019

Remarks: Previously regarded as the West African population of sibilans. A relict population in southern Algeria, a damaged specimen previously assigned to rukwae by Böhme 1986 and to sibilans by Hughes 2012, may represent afroccidentalis (Trape, Crochet, Broadley, Sourouille, Mané, Burger, Böhme, Saleh, Karan, Lanza & Mediannikov 2019), and is tentatively regarded as such herein.
Distribution: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo.





Psammophis angolensis

Dwarf Sand Snake, Angolan Sand Snake, Pygmy Sand Snake

Zwerg-Sandrennnatter

Dværg-sandsnog

1872 Amphiophis angolensis Bocage
Dromophis angolensis Boettger 1888
Psammophis angolensis Boulenger 1891
1877 Ablabes homeyeri Peters (Broadley 1983)

Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa (Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar), Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Psammophis ansorgii

Benguela Sand Snake, (Ansorge's Whip Snake, Line-marked Sand Racer)

Ansorges Sandrennnatter

Benguela-sandsnog

1905 Psammophis Ansorgii Boulenger

Distribution: Angola.


Psammophis biseriatus

Eastern Link-marked Sand Snake, Two-striped Sand Snake

Zweistreifen-Sandrennnatter

Tostribet Sandsnog

1881 Psammophis biseriatus Peters

Remarks: Previously included tanganicus.
Distribution: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania.


Psammophis brevirostris

Short-snouted Grass Snake

Kurzschnauzen-Sandrennnatter

Kortsnudet Sandsnog

1881 Psammophis brevirostris Peters
Psammophis sibilans brevirostris Broadley 1977

Remarks: Previously included leopardinus. Formerly regarded as a synonym of sibilans (e.g., Loveridge 1957). Regarded as a separate species by Brandstätter (1996). Validity confirmed by Broadley (2002).
Distribution: Botswana, Eswatini, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Zimbabwe.


Psammophis condanarus

Oriental Sand Snake, Indo-Burmese Sand Snake, Condanarus Sand Snake, Indian Sand Snake, Himalayan Sand Snake

Asiatische Sandrennnatter

Indisk Sandsnog

1820 Coluber condanarus Merrem
Psammophis condanarus Boulenger 1890
Taphrometopon condanarum Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1853 Leptophis bellii Jerdon (Smith 1943)
1863 Psammophis indicus Beddome (Smith 1943)
1868 Phayrea isabellina Theobald (Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1924 Mike elegantissima Werner (Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)

Remarks: Previously included indochinensis. Reported from Karnataka (Prasad 1992), but according to Whitaker & Captain (2004), presence in this state needs confirmation.
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.


Psammophis crucifer

Cross-marked Grass Snake, Montane Grass Snake

Kreuz-Sandrennnatter

Kors-sandsnog

1803 Coluber crucifer Daudin
Psammophis crucifer Boie in Oken 1827
Saurophis crucifer Fisk 1883
Taphrometopon crucifer Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Eswatini, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), Zimbabwe.


Psammophis elegans

Elegant Sand Snake

Schlanke Sandrennnatter

Gratie-sandsnog

1802 Coluber elegans Shaw
Psammophis elegans Duméril & Bibron 1854
1961 Psammophis elegans univittatus Perret (Böhme 2010)
Psammophis univittatus Hughes 1999

Remarks: Hughes (1999) regarded univittatus as a separate species, However, Böhme (2010) retained it as a subspecies of elegans. Not mentioned by Chirio & LeBreton (2007), who may have followed Böhme.
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.


Psammophis indochinensis

Indochinese Sand Snake

Hinterindische Sandrennnatter

Indokinesisk Sandsnog

1943 Psammophis condanarus indochinensis Smith
Psammophis indochinensis Hughes 1999
Taphrometopon indochinensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia (Bali, Java), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.


Psammophis jallae

Zimbabwe Sand Snake, (Jalla's Sand Snake)

Jallas Sandrennnatter

Zimbabwe-sandsnog

1896 Psammophis jallae Peracca
1921 Psammophis rohani Angel (Broadley 1983)
1932 Psammophis longirostris Fitzsimons (Broadley 1983)

Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Namibia, South Africa (Gauteng, Limpopo, North West Province), Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Psammophis leightoni

Cape Sand Snake, (Leighton's Sand Snake)

Westliche Kap-Sandrennnatter

Kap-sandsnog

1902 Psammophis leightoni Boulenger
Psammophis sibilans leightoni Loveridge 1940

Remarks: Previously included namibensis and trinasalis. Formerly regarded as a subspecies of sibilans (e.g., Loveridge 1940). Revalidated as a separate species by FitzSimons (1970, 1974). Presence in Northern Cape needs confirmation (Bates, Branch, Bauer, Burger, Marais, Alexander & Villiers [eds.] 2014).
Distribution: South Africa (Western Cape).


Psammophis leithii

Pakistani Sand Snake, Pakistan Ribbon Snake, Indian Ribbon Snake, Sind Ribbon Snake, (Leith's Sand Snake)

Gebänderte Sandrennnatter

Pakistansk Sandsnog

1869 Psammophis leithii Günther
Taphrometopon leithii Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Pakistan.


Psammophis leopardinus

Leopard Sand Snake, Leopard Grass Snake, Chain-marked Grass Snake

Leoparden-Sandrennnatter

Leopard-sandsnog

1887 Psammophis sibilans var. leopardina Bocage
Psammophis leopardinus Hughes 1999
Psammophis brevirostris leopardinus Haagner, Branch & Haagner 2000

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of sibilans (e.g., Loveridge 1957) or of brevirostris (e.g., Brandstätter 1996). Records from Zambia and adjacent Congo-Kinshasa refer to zambiensis.
Distribution: Angola, Namibia.


Psammophis lineolatus

Steppe Sand Snake, Steppe Ribbon Snake

Steppenrennnatter

Steppe-sandsnog

1838 Coluber lineolatus Brandt [not Coluber lineolatus Wied 1825]
Taphrometopon lineolatum Peters 1861
Psammophis lineolatus Smith 1943
1854 Chorisodon sibericum Duméril & Bibron (Peters 1861)
1912 Psammophis triticeus Wall (Smith 1943)

Distribution: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Psammophis longifrons

Stout Sand Snake

Indische Sandrennnatter

Langsnudet Sandsnog

1896 Psammophis longifrons Boulenger
Taphrometopon longifrons Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Andhra Pradesh is included in the distribution based on the type locality, Cudappah Hills, although regarded as probably incorrect by Whitaker & Captain (2004). However, the species has since then been found in localities closer to the type locality, suggesting that it might be correct.
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana).


Psammophis mossambicus

East African Olive Grass Snake, (Olive Grass Snake, Olive Whip Snake, Hissing Sand Snake)

Ostafrikanische Olivfarbige Sandrennnatter

Østafrikansk Olivensandsnog

1882 Psammophis sibilans var. mossambica Peters
Psammophis mossambicus Branch 1998
1882 Psammophis sibilans tettensis Peters (Hughes 1999; Broadley 2002)
1908 Psammophis thomasi Gough (Broadley 2002)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of sibilans (e.g., Loveridge 1957), of phillipsii (e.g., Broadley 1983), or of brevirostris (e.g., Brandstätter 1995). This species includes what was previously considered the eastern and southern African populations of phillipsii (Griffin 2003).
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga), Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Psammophis namibensis

Namib Sand Snake

Namib-Sandrennnatter

Namibisk Sandsnog

1975 Psammophis leightoni namibensis Broadley
Psammophis namibensis Broadley 2002

Distribution: Angola, Namibia, South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape).


Psammophis notostictus

Karoo Sand Snake, Dapple-backed Sand Snake

Karoo-Sandrennnatter

Karoo-sandsnog

1867 Psammophis moniliger notostictus Peters
Psammophis sibilans notostictus Fischer 1888
Psammophis notostictus Boulenger 1896
1887 Psammophis sibilans stenocephalus Bocage (Broadley 1983)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of sibilans.
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Northern Cape, Western Cape).


Psammophis occidentalis

Central African Olive Grass Snake

Zentralafrikanische Olivfarbige Sandrennnatter

Centralafrikansk Olivensandsnog

1919 Psammophis subtaeniatus occidentalis Werner
Psammophis phillipsi occidentalis Hughes & Wade 2004
Psammophis occidentalis Chirio & LeBreton 2007

Distribution: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Nigeria.


Psammophis orientalis

Eastern Stripe-bellied Sand Snake

Östliche Gelbbauch-Sandrennnatter

Østlig Bugstribet Sandsnog

1977 Psammophis subtaeniatus orientalis Broadley
Psammophis orientalis Broadley 2002

Distribution: Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago [incl. Benguerua]), Tanzania, Zimbabwe.


Psammophis phillipsii

West African Olive Grass Snake, (Phillips' Sand Snake, Olive Grass Snake)

Phillips-Sandrennnatter

Vestafrikansk Olivensandsnog

1844 Coluber Phillipsii Hallowell
Psammophis phillipsii Hallowell 1854
Psammophis sibilans phillipsii Loveridge 1938

Remarks: Previously included mossambicus. Older records of phillipsii from southern and eastern Africa now refer to mossambicus (Griffin 2003). Status in Central Africa west to Togo is uncertain (Trape & Mané 2006a). In lack of a revision, records from this area are retained herein as phillipsi.
Distribution: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo.


Psammophis pulcher

Venus Sand Snake, Beautiful Sand Snake

Schöne Sandrennnatter

Venus-sandsnog

1895 Psammophis pulcher Boulenger

Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya.


Psammophis punctulatus

Northern Speckled Sand Snake

Nördliche Gepunktete Sandrennnatter

Nordlig Spættet Sandsnog

1854 Psammophis punctulatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
1859 Dendrophis furcata Bianconi (Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)

Remarks: Previously included trivirgatus.
Distribution: Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania.


Psammophis rukwae

Lake Rukwa Sand Snake

Rukwa-Sandrennnatter

Rukwa-sandsnog

1966 Psammophis sibilans rukwae Broadley
Psammophis rukwae Broadley 1977
1995 Psammophis rukwae silvomarginata Brandstätter (Chippaux 2001)

Remarks: Previously included P. sudanensis leucogaster. Records of rukwae from West Africa probably refer to that subspecies (Trape & Mané 2006a). Reported from Niger by Ineich, Chirio, Ascani, Rabeil & Newby (2014), but since it was not listed for the country by Trape & Mané (2015), rukwae is not included for Niger herein. Also see Kelly, Barker Villet, Broadley & Branch (2008). Known from each a single locality in Kenya and Uganda (Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2002).
Distribution: Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.


Psammophis schokari

Arabian Sand Snake, Afro-Asian Sand Snake, Asian Sand Snake, Variable Sand Snake, Desert Sand Snake, Saharo-Sindian Ribbon Snake, (Schokari Sand Snake, Forskål's Sand Snake)

Arabische Sandrennnatter

Arabisk Sandsnog

1775 Coluber schokari Forskål
Psammophis schokari Boulenger 1896
Psammophis sibilans schokari Loveridge 1941
1854 Psammophis moniliger Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1872 Psammophis sindanus Stoliczka (Smith 1943)
1895 Psammophis lacrymans Reuss (Gasperetti 1988)

Remarks: Previously included aegyptius. Records from Niger (e.g., Villiers 1950) refer to aegyptius (Trape & Mané 2006a). Records from Benin are based on wrong locality data or misidentifications (Ullenbruch, Grell & Böhme 2010; Hughes 2013).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, India (Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman (incl. Masirah), Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands), Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.


Psammophis sibilans

Hissing Sand Snake, African Hissing Snake, Striped Sand Snake, African Beauty Snake, Large Brown Grass Snake, Olive Grass Snake, Olive Sand Snake, Sun Snake

Schmuck-Sandrennnatter, Gestreifte Sandrennnatter, Zischnatter

Brun Sandsnog

1758 Coluber sibilans Linnaeus
Psammophis sibilans Boulenger 1896
1802 Coluber gemmatus Shaw (Loveridge 1957)
1803 Coluber moniliger Daudin (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1829 Coluber auritus Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1856 Psammophis irregularis Fischer (Loveridge 1957)
1884 Psammophis sibilans intermedius Fischer (Loveridge 1957)
1908 Psammophis thomasi Gough (Loveridge 1957)

Remarks: Previously included brevirostris, leightoni, leopardinus, mossambicus, occidentalis, phillipsii, rukwae, schokari, subtaeniatus, sudanensis, and trinasalis. Confused with phillipsii (or its former subspecies mossambicus) in much older literature. Most old records of sibilans from eastern and southern Africa refer to mossambicus (Hughes 1999; Griffin 2003). Records from Cameroon (e.g., Böhme 1975, Hughes 1983) refer to phillipsi, according to Joger (1982), however, Chirio & LeBreton (2007) retained sibilans as occurring in Cameroon.
Introduced to: Cape Verde.
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar), Togo.


Psammophis subtaeniatus

Western Stripe-bellied Sand Snake, Western Yellow-bellied Sand Snake, Southern Stripe-bellied Sand Snake

Westliche Gelbbauch-Sandrennnatter

Vestlig Bugstribet Sandsnog

1882 Psammophis sibilans var. subtaeniata Peters
Psammophis subtaeniatus Boulenger 1896
1896 Psammophis bocagii Boulenger (Broadley 1983)
1908 Psammophis transvaalensis Gough (Broadley 1983)

Remarks: Previously included orientalis and sudanensis. A record from Cameroon (Böhme 1975) refer to rukwae (Böhme 1978). Records from the Central African Republic refer to sudanensis (Chirio & Ineich 2006). Presence in Ethiopia considered doubtful (Largen & Rasmussen 1993), although recorded by Böhme (1987).
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Psammophis sudanensis

Sudan Sand Snake, (Eastern Stripe-bellied Sand Snake)

Sudanische Sandrennnatter

Sudansk Sandsnog

1919 Psammophis subtaeniatus var. sudanensis Werner
Psammophis sudanensis Hughes 1999
1983 Psammophis leucogaster Spawls (Hughes 1999)
Psammophis rukwae leucogaster Böhme 1986
Psammophis sudanensis leucogaster Trape & Mané 2006a

Other common names:
leucogaster: White-bellied Sand Snake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of sibilans (e.g., Broadley 1977). Revalidated as a separate species by Hughes (1999). Records from Guinea (Chirio 2012) and Benin (e.g., Ullenbruch, Grell & Böhme 2010) were based on misidentifications, although the species is probably present in Benin (Hughes 2013; Trape & Baldé 2014).
Distribution: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Zanzibar), Uganda.


Psammophis tanganicus

Tanganyika Sand Snake, Western Link-marked Sand Snake

Ketten-Sandrennnatter

Tanganyika-sandsnog

1940 Psammophis biseriatus tanganicus Loveridge
Psammophis tanganicus Bezy & Drewes 1985

Remarks: A report from Libya (as biseriatus) (e.g., Scortecci 1937; Zavattari 1937; Loveridge 1940; Kramer & Schnurrenberger 1959) is considered questionable (Venchi & Sindaco 2007; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Bauer, DeBoer & Taylor 2017) and disregarded herein, pending confirmation for the country.
Distribution: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.


Psammophis trigrammus

Western Sand Snake

Westliche Sandrennnatter

Vestlig Sandsnog

1865 Psammophis trigrammus Günther

Distribution: Angola, Namibia, South Africa (Northern Cape).


Psammophis trinasalis

Kalahari Sand Snake, Fork-marked Sand Snake

Kalahari-Sandrennnatter

Kalahari-sandsnog

1867 Psammophis moniliger furcatus Peters [not Dendrophis furcata Bianconi 1859] (Broadley 1983)
Psammophis sibilans furcatus Fischer 1888
Psammophis furcatus Boulenger 1895
1902 Psammophis sibilans trinasalis Werner
Psammophis trinasalis Werner 1903
Psammophis leightoni trinasalis Mertens 1955

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Broadley (2002).
Distribution: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape).


Psammophis trivirgatus

Southern Speckled Sand Snake

Südliche Gepunktete Sandrennnatter

Sydlig Spættet Sandsnog

1878 Psammophis punctulatus trivirgatus Peters
Psammophis trivirgatus Lanza 1990

Distribution: Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda.


Psammophis zambiensis

Zambian Sand Snake, Zambian Whip Snake

Sambianische Sandrennnatter

Zambiansk Sandsnog

2002 Psammophis zambiensis Hughes & Wade

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of leopardinus (e.g., Brandstätter 1996). There are no confirmed records from Angola, but the country is included in the distribution herein, based on some older records of sibilans that may be referable to zambiensis, following Marques, Ceríaco, Blackburn & Bauer (2018), who suggested that the species could also be present in Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia (Caprivi Strip), and Zimbabwe.
Distribution: Angola, Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia.