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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Gonyosoma
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Gonyosoma

Oriental Green Rat Snakes and Rainbow Tree Snake, (Racers)

Asiatische Spitzkopfnattern, Falsche Kletternattern

Spidshovedede Rottesnoge

1828 Gonyosoma Wagler (type species: Gonyosoma viride Wagler 1828)
1849 Alopecophis Gray (type species: Alopecophis chalybeus Gray 1849; syn. Smith 1943)
1861 Aepidea Hallowell (type species: Aepidea robusta Hallowell 1860; syn. Smith 1943)
1872 Allophis Peters (type species: Elaphis nigricaudus Bleeker 1858; syn. Iskandar & Colijn 2001)
1891 Gonyophis Boulenger (type species: Gonyosoma margaritatum Peters 1871; syn. Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink 2014)
1897 Rhynchophis Mocquard (type species: Rhynchophis boulengeri Mocquard 1897; syn. Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink 2014)
1922 Rhadinophis Vogt (type species: Rhadinophis melli Vogt 1922; syn. Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink 2014)
1931 Proboscidophis Fan (type species: Proboscidophis versicolor Fan 1931; syn. Zhao & Adler 1993)
Contents: 7 species, of which 1 (14.3%) is endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: This genus has had a turbulent history with some authors regarding it as valid (e.g., Dowling 1958), while others have regarded it as a synonym of Elaphe (e.g., Schulz 1996). Furthermore, the number of species assigned to Gonyosoma has been a matter of controversy, with some authors regarding it as monotypic (containing only oxycephalum), while others have included frenatum, jansenii, and prasinum. Most recent publications accept Gonyosoma as valid (e.g., Helfenberger 2001; Utiger, Helfenberger, Schätti, Schmidt, Ruf & Ziswiler 2002; David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004; Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005; Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013). Moreover, Rhadinophis has been considered a valid genus by some authors (e.g., Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009; Das 2010; Teynié & David 2010). Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens (2013) noted that Rhynchophis is nested within Rhadinophis, nevertheless, these authors provisionally retained all three genera as valid. Subsequently, Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink (2014) synonymized Rhynchophis with Gonyosoma, along with Gonyophis and Rhadinophis. Coelognathus enganensis has been regarded by some authors as a distinct species belonging to this genus (e.g., Dowling 1958).
Distribution: SE. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands], Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Bangka, Belitung, Buton, Java, Kabaena, Kalimantan, Karimata Islands, Legundi, Lombok, Natuna Islands, Nias, Panaitan, Riau Islands, Sebuku, Selayar, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Calayan, Camiguin Norte], Balabac, Batan Islands [Batan, Itbayat, Sabtang], Bohol, Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, Dumaran, Lubang, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Samar, Sibuyan, Sulu Islands [Bongao]), Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Gonyosoma boulengeri

Rhinoceros Rat Snake, Rhinoceros Snake, Rostellated Snake, Vietnamese Horned Snake

Spitznasennatter

Næsehornssnog

1897 Rhynchophis boulengeri Mocquard
Gonyosoma boulengeri Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink 2014
1931 Proboscidophis versicolor Fan (Zhao & Adler 1993)

Distribution: China (Guangxi, Hainan), Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Gonyosoma boulengeri
© Rune Midtgaard

Gonyosoma coeruleum

Blue-eyed Bush Rat Snake

Blauaugen-Strauchnatter

Blåøjet Buskrottesnog

2021 Gonyosoma coeruleum Liu, Hou, Lwin, Wang & Rao

Remarks: Currently known from only Yunnan, China, but expected to occur in other Chinese provinces (Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan), as well as in Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Distribution: China (Yunnan).





Gonyosoma frenatum

Khasi Hills Rat Snake, Khasi Hills Trinket Snake, Assam Trinket Snake, Rein Snake

Grüne Zügelnatter

Indisk Grøn Rottesnog

1853 Herpetrodryas frenatus [sic] Gray
Coluber frenatus Boulenger 1890
Gonyosoma frenatum Günther 1858
Elaphe frenata Pope 1935
Rhadinophis frenata Burbrink & Lawson 2007 (by implication)
Rhynchophis frenatus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1922 Rhadinophis melli Vogt (Smith 1943)
Gonyosoma melli Mell 1931
1925 Gonyosoma caldwelli Schmidt (Smith 1943)
1958 Chrysopelea ornata lungchuanensis Hu, Huang, He & Wei (Zhao & Adler 1993)

Remarks: Reassigned to Gonyosoma by Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger (2005).
Distribution: Bhutan, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Sichuan, Zhejiang), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya), Taiwan, Vietnam.


Gonyosoma jansenii

Sulawesi Black-tailed Rat Snake, (Jansen's Rat Snake, Jansen's Racer)

Sulawesi-Schwarzschwanznatter

Sorthalet Rottesnog

1858 Gonyosoma jansenii Bleeker
Coluber janseni Boulenger 1894
Elaphe jansenii Haas 1950
1872 Allophis nigricaudus Peters (Iskandar & Colijn 2001)

Remarks: Taxonomic inclusion in the genus Gonyosoma confirmed by Helfenberger (2001). Insufficient evidence of presence in Thailand (Cox 1991).
Distribution: Indonesia (Buton, Kabaena, Selayar, Sulawesi).


Gonyosoma margaritatum

Rainbow Tree Snake, Royal Tree Snake

Regenbogen-Baumnatter

Regnbuetræsnog

1871 Gonyosoma margaritatum Peters
Gonyophis margaritatus Boulenger 1891

Remarks: Previously placed in a monotypic genus, Gonyophis, but reassigned to Gonyosoma by Chen, McKelvy, Grismer, Matsui, Nishikawa & Burbrink (2014). Present in the past, but not confirmed recently from Singapore (Baker & Lim 2008).
Extinct in: Singapore.
Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia).


Gonyosoma oxycephalum

Red-tailed Green Rat Snake, Red-tailed Rat Snake, Mangrove Rat Snake, Red-tailed Racer, Red-tailed Trinket Snake, Brown-tailed Racer, Grey-tailed Racer

Rotschwanznatter, Spitzkopfnatter

Rødhalet Rottesnog, Rødhalet Klatresnog

1827 Coluber oxycephalus Boie
Herpetodryas oxycephalus Schlegel 1837
Elaphe oxycephala Griffin 1909
Gonyosoma oxycephalum Duméril & Bibron 1854
1828 Gonyosoma viride Wagler (Smith 1943)
1849 Alopecophis chalybeus Gray (Smith 1943)
1860 Æpidea robusta Hallowell (Smith 1943)
1925 Coluber floweri Werner (Smith 1943; David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004)
Gonyosoma floweri Chan-ard, Parr & Nabhitabhata 2015
1926 Coluber janseni elegans Werner (Smith 1943; David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004)

Remarks: The nominal taxa elegans and floweri simply represent different colour morphs of oxycephalum (Smith 1943; Schulz 1996; David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt 2004), although Taylor (1965) and Chan-ard, Parr & Nabhitabhata (2015) regarded floweri as valid. Records from Sulawesi may refer to janseni (Lang & Vogel 2005). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Itbayat (Batan Islands) and Mindoro in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Brunei, Cambodia, India (Andaman Islands), Indonesia (Bali, Bangka, Belitung, Java, Kalimantan, Karimata Islands, Legundi, Lombok, Natuna Islands, Nias, Panaitan, Riau Islands, Sebuku, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Tioman)]), Myanmar, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Calayan, Camiguin Norte], Balabac, Batan Islands [Batan, Itbayat, Sabtang], Bohol, Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, Dumaran, Lubang, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Samar, Sibuyan, Sulu Islands [Bongao]), Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


Gonyosoma oxycephalum
© Rune Midtgaard

Gonyosoma prasinum

Green Bush Rat Snake, Green Tree Racer, Green Mountain Racer, Green Trinket Snake

Grüne Strauchnatter, Grüne Baumnatter

Grøn Buskrottesnog

1854 Coluber prasinus Blyth
Elaphe prasina Smith 1930
Gonyosoma prasina Das 1997
Rhadinophis prasinus Burbrink & Lawson 2007 (by implication)
Rhynchophis prasinus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1864 Gonyosoma gramineum Günther (Smith 1943)

Remarks: Reports from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are considered erroneous, as no voucher specimens exist (Das 1999). Presence in Nepal needs confirmation (Kästle, Rai & Schleich 2013).
Distribution: Bhutan, China (Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, West Bengal), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.