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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Philodryas
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


South American Bush Racers, (South American Green Racers, South American Green Snakes, Pampas Racers, Palm Snakes)

Südamerikanische Strauchnattern

Sydamerikanske Kratpilsnoge

1830 Philodryas Wagler (type species: Coluber olfersii Lichtenstein 1823)
1843 Orophis Fitzinger (type species: Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835)
1854 Taeniophis Girard (type species: Taeniophis tantillus Girard 1854)
1887 Agratomus Cope (type species: Herpetodryas trilineatus Burmeister 1861 [nomen nudum]; syn. Thomas 1976)
1887 Atomophis Cope [substitute name for Agratomus Cope 1887] (syn. Thomas 1976)
1894 Monobothris Cope (type species: Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835; syn. Thomas 1976)
1903 Rhinodryas Werner (type species: Rhinodryas königi Werner 1903; syn. Thomas 1976)
1916 Pachyurus Philippi in Quijada (type species: Pachyurus mucronatus = Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835)
1923 Platyinion Amaral (type species: Platyinion lividum Amaral 1923; syn. Thomas & Fernandes 1996)
1924 Pseuduromacer Werner (type species: Pseuduromacer lugubris Werner 1924; syn. Thomas 1976)
Contents: 13 species, of which 4 (30.8%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: The systematic history of Philodryas and related genera has been turbulent. Previously included the species now assigned to Chlorosoma, Incaspis, Pseudablabes, Tropidodryas, and Xenoxybelis. Grazziotin, Zaher, Murphy, Scrocchi, Benavides, Zhang & Bonatto (2012) considered the taxonomical gender of Philodryas feminine.
Distribution: South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Chile, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Philodryas aestiva

Eastern Brazilian Green Bush Racer, Brazilian Green Racer

Ostbrasilianische Strauchnatter

Østbrasiliansk Grøn Kratpilsnog

1854 Dryophylax aestivus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Philodryas aestivus Günther 1858
Chlorosoma aestivum Amaral 1929
1900 Philodryas campicola Jensen (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1902 Philodryas subcarinatus Boulenger
Philodryas aestivus subcarinatus Thomas 1976
1924 Pseuduromacer lugubris Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1959 Philodryas aestivus manegarzoni Orejas-Miranda (Thomas 1976; Barrio, Laurent & Thomas 1977)
1976 Philodryas aestivus levisquamus Thomas

Other common names:
aestiva: Northern Green Snake
levisquama: Smooth Green Snake
subcarinata: Southern Green Snake
Remarks: Presence in Mato Grosso (do Sul?) needs verification. The species has been recorded from "Mato Grosso", but without exact locality (Thomas 1976b). Not listed for Rio de Janeiro by Oliveira, Gonzalez, Passos, Vrcibradic & Rocha (2020).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.

Philodryas baroni

Long-nosed Bush Racer, (Baron's Racer, Baron's Bush Racer)


Spidssnudet Kratpilsnog

1895 Philodryas Baroni Berg
Chlorosoma baroni Amaral 1929
1903 Rhinodryas königi Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1914 Philodryas baroni fusco-flavescens Serié (Thomas 1976)

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay.

Philodryas baroni
© Rune Midtgaard

Philodryas boliviana

Bolivian Striped Bush Racer, Bolivian Racer

Bolivianische Streifen-Strauchnatter

Boliviansk Stribet Kratpilsnog

1896 Philodryas bolivianus Boulenger
Philodryas psammophideus bolivianus Vellard 1946
1909 Liophis bolivianus Werner (Thomas 1976)

Remarks: Regarded by some authors as a synonym of psammophideus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Thomas 1976; David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: Bolivia.

Philodryas chamissonis

Chilean Bush Racer, Chilean Racer

Chilenische Strauchnatter

Chilensk Kratpilsnog

1835 Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann
Orophis chamissonis Fitzinger 1843
Dromicus chamissonis Steindachner 1867
Oreomorphus chamissonis Cope 1889
Monobothris chamissonis Cope 1889
Leimadophis chamissonis Schenone, Bertín & Mann 1954
Alsophis chamissonis Maglio 1970
Philodryas chamissonis Thomas 1976
1837 Psammophis temminckii Schlegel (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
Dromicus temmincki Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Liophis temmincki Cope 1862
Aporophis temmincki Cope 1889
1854 Taeniophis tantillus Girard (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1899 Liophis luctuosa Philippi (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1974 Alsophis chamissonis eremicola Donoso-Barros
Philodryas chamissonis eremicola Veloso & Navarro 1988

Distribution: Chile.

Philodryas cordata

Guaiquinima Bush Racer



1991 Philodryas cordata Donnelly & Myers

Distribution: Venezuela.

Philodryas erlandi

Chaco Bush Racer



1902 Philodryas erlandi Lönnberg
Philodryas ternetzii erlandi Müller 1928

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of mattogrossensis (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976). Revalidated as a separate species by Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler (2016).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay.

Philodryas livida

Blue Bush Racer

Blaue Strauchnatter

Blå Kratpilsnog

1923 Platyinion lividum Amaral
Philodryas livida Thomas & Fernandes 1996

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.

Philodryas mattogrossensis

Mato Grosso Bush Racer, Two-coloured Racer, Miranda Green Racer


Mato Grosso-kratpilsnog

1898 Philodryas mattogrossensis Koslowsky
Chlorosoma mattogrossense Amaral 1929
1901 Philodryas ternetzii Schenkel (Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler 2016)
1909 Philodryas boulengeri Werner (Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler 2016)

Remarks: Previously included erlandi.
Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.

Philodryas nattereri

Paraguay Bush Racer, Brown Racer


Paraguayisk Kratpilsnog

1846 Psammophis molochina Berthold (rejected; Böhme 2010)
1870 Philodryas nattereri Steindachner
Chlorosoma nattereri Amaral 1929

Remarks: Although frequently listed in older literature as occurring in Paraguay (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; David & Ineich 1999), Smith, Scott, Cacciali, Atkinson & Pheasey (2013) were apparently the first to document the species from the country with a voucher specimen.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Paraguay.

Philodryas olfersii

Common Green Bush Racer, (Lichtenstein's Bush Racer, Lichtenstein's Green Racer)

Gewöhnliche Grüne Strauchnatter

Almindelig Grøn Kratpilsnog

1823 Coluber olfersii Lichtenstein
Chlorosoma olfersii Amaral 1929
Philodryas olfersii Boulenger 1896
1825 Coluber herbeus Wied
Philodryas olfersi herbeus Thomas 1976
1825 Coluber pileatus Wied (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1862 Philodryas latirostris Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Philodryas olfersi latirostris Thomas 1976
1862 Philodryas reinhardtii Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1924 Philodryas argentinus Müller (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1957 Philodryas carbonelli Roze (Thomas 1976)

Other common names:
herbea: Northern Green Racer
latirostris: Southern Green Racer
olfersii: Southeastern Green Racer
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro [incl. Ilha Grande Island], Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Philodryas psammophidea

South American Striped Racer, (Günther's Bush Racer, Günther's Green Racer)

Südamerikanische Streifen-Strauchnatter

Sydamerikansk Stribet Kratpilsnog

1872 Philodryas psammophideus Günther
Chlorosoma psammophideum Serié 1936
1887 Dirrhox lativittatus Cope
Philodryas psammophideus lativittatus Thomas 1976
1909 Philodryas lineatus Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1976 Philodryas psammophideus andensis Thomas

Other common names:
andensis: Andean Striped Racer
lativittata: Brazilian Striped Racer
psammophidea: Common Striped Racer
Remarks: Previously included bolivianus.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.

Philodryas trilineata

Argentine Racer, Argentine Mousehole Snake, (Burmeister's Bush Racer)

Argentinische Strauchnatter

Argentinsk Kratpilsnog

1961 Herpetodryas trilineatus Jan
Atomophis trilineatus Cope 1887
Philodryas trilineatus Cei 1993
1863 Philodryas burmeisteri Jan (Cei 1993)
Chlorosoma burmeisteri Amaral 1929
1898 Philodryas arenarius Andersson (Thomas 1976 [as a synonym of burmeisteri])

Distribution: Argentina.

Philodryas varia

Variegated Bush Racer

Bunte Strauchnatter

Broget Kratpilsnog

1863 Liophis wagleri var. varia Jan
Philodryas varius Thomas & Johnson 1984
1897 Philodryas borellii Peracca (Thomas & Johnson 1984)
1925 Philodryas werneri Müller (Thomas 1976 [as synonym of borellii])
1973 Philodryas patagoniensis haywardi Laurent (Reptile Database, viewed 2013 01 26)

Other common names:
borellii: Borelli's Racer
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.