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Taxonomy of the family Pareidae
Bibliography of the genus Pareas
Biodiversity of the family Pareidae








Genus
Pareas

Typical Oriental Slug Eaters, Oriental Slug-eating Snakes, Oriental Slug Snakes, Asian Snail-eating Snakes, Oriental Blunt-headed Snakes, Oriental Chunk-headed Snakes, Oriental Night Snakes, (Broad-headed Snakes)

Eigentliche Asiatische Schneckennattern

Egentlige Orientalske Sneglesnoge

1830 Pareas Wagler (type species: Amblycephalus carinatus Wagler 1830)
1920 Eberhardtia Angel (type species: Eberhardtia tonkinensis Angel 1920; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
Contents: 27 species, of which 14 (51.9%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included Asthenodipsas. Erroneously placed in the family Acrochordidae by Aengals, Kumar, Palot & Ganesh (2018).
Distribution: E. and SE. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Penida, Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands [incl. Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands)]), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Pareas abros

Quang Nam Snail Eater, Cute Snail Eater

Quang Nam-Schneckennatter

Quang Nam-sneglesnog

2022 Pareas abros Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel

Distribution: Vietnam.





Pareas andersonii

Bhamo Slug Eater, (Anderson's Slug Eater)

Bhamo-Schneckennatter

Bhamo-sneglesnog

1888 Pareas andersonii Boulenger
Amblycephalus andersoni Boulenger 1890

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of macularius (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated by Vogel, Nguyen, Lalremsanga, Biakzuala, Hrima & Poyarkov (2020).
Distribution: China (Yunnan), India (Mizoram, Nagaland), Myanmar.





Pareas atayal

Atayal Slug Eater

Atayal-Schneckennatter

Atayal-sneglesnog

2015 Pareas atayal You, Poyarkov & Lin

Distribution: Taiwan.


Pareas berdmorei

Mon Slug Eater, (Berdmore's Snail Eater)

Mon-Schneckennatter

Mon-sneglesnog

1868 Pareas berdmorei Theobald
Amblycephalus carinatus berdmorei Smith 1930
1934 Amblycephalus carinatus unicolor Bourret
Pareas carinatus unicolor Welch 1988
Pareas berdmorei unicolor Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel 2022
2020 Pareas menglaensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo (syn. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel 2022)
2022 Pareas berdmorei truongsonicus Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel

Other common names:
menglaensis: Mengla Slug Eater
truongsonicus: Truong Son Slug Eater, Annamite Slug Eater
unicolor: Cochinchinese Slug Eater
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of carinatus (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated as a separate species by Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel (2022).
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.





Pareas boulengeri

Guizhou Slug Eater

Guizhou-Schneckennatter

Guizhou-sneglesnog

1920 Amblycephalus boulengeri Angel
Pareas boulengeri Hu, Zhao & Liu 1973

Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).


Pareas carinatus

Keeled Slug Eater, Keeled Slug Snake

Gekielte Schneckennatter

Kølet Sneglesnog

1830 Amblycephalus carinatus Wagler
Pareas carinata Wagler 1830
Dipsas carinata Schlegel 1837
Leptognathus carinatus Jan 1863
2022 Pareas carinatus tenasserimicus Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel

Other common names:
tenasserimicus: Tenasserim Slug Eater
Remarks: It is possible that all Bornean records of carinatus refer to nuchalis (Stuebing, Inger & Lardner 2014).
Distribution: Brunei, Cambodia, China (Yunnan), Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Penida, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.


Pareas carinatus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Pareas chinensis

Chinese Slug Eater

Chinesische Schneckennatter

Kinesisk Sneglesnog

1912 Amblycephalus chinensis Barbour
Pareas chinensis Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1922 Amblycephalus kuangtungensis Vogt (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Pareas kuangtungensis Welch 1988

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of formosensis by Jiang (2004), but Zhao (2006) retained both as valid species, pending further studies. Guo, Wu, He, Shi & Zhao (2011) confirmed the validity of chinensis. Rao & Yang (1992) revalidated kuangtungensis and yunnanensis as separate species, but most subsequent works have retained the two forms as synonyms of chinensis. However, validity of yunnanensis as a separate species was supported by Guo, Wang & Rao (2020).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).


Pareas formosensis

Taiwanese Red-eyed Slug Eater

Taiwanische Rotaugen-Schneckennatter

Taiwansk Rødøjet Sneglesnog

1909 Amblycephalus formosensis Van Denburgh
Pareas formosensis Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1910 Psammodynastes compressus Oshima (You, Poyarkov & Lin 2016)

Remarks: Previously included komaii.
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Vietnam.


Pareas geminatus

Jiangcheng Slug Eater, Twin Slug Eater

Jiangcheng-Schneckennatter

Jiangcheng-sneglesnog

2020 Pareas geminatus Ding, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Pogarkov & Vogel

Distribution: China (Yunnan), Laos, Thailand.





Pareas hamptoni

Burmese Slug Eater, (Hampton's Slug Eater)

Burmesische Schneckennatter, (Hamptons Schneckennatter)

Burmesisk Sneglesnog

1905 Amblycephalus hamptoni Boulenger
Pareas hamptoni Smith 1930
1920 Eberhardtia tonkinensis Angel
Amblycephalus tonkinensis Bourret 1936
Pareas hamptoni tonkinensis Orlov, Murphy & Papenfuss 2000
1923 Amblycephalus carinatus hainanus Smith (Smith 1943)

Remarks: Now restricted to Myanmar and Vietnam, but expected to occur in Yunnan, China (Ding, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Pogarkov & Vogel 2020). Records from Thailand refer to carinatus or geminatus (Vogel 2010; Ding, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Pogarkov & Vogel 2020). Records from Hong Kong (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993) refer to chinensis (Ota, Bogadek & Lau 1997; Vogel 2010).
Distribution: Myanmar, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Pareas iwasakii

Ryukyu Slug Eater, (Iwasaki's Snail-eating Snake)

Ryukyu-Schneckennatter

Ryukyu-sneglesnog

1937 Amblycephalus formosensis iwasakii Maki
Pareas iwasakii Takara 1962

Distribution: Japan: Ryukyu Islands (Sakishima Islands [Yaeyama Islands], Okinawa Islands [Okinawa Island]).


Pareas kaduri

Lohit Slug Eater

Lohit-Schneckennatter

Lohit-sneglesnog

2020 Pareas kaduri Bhosale, Phansalkar, Sawant, Gowande, Patel & Mirza

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).





Pareas komaii

Alishan Slug Eater

Alishan-Schneckennatter

Alishan-sneglesnog

1931 Amblycephalus komaii Maki
Pareas komaii Nakamura & Ueno 1971

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of formosensis (e.g., Ota, Lin, Hirata & Chen 1997). Revalidated as a separate species by You, Poyarkov & Lin (2016).
Distribution: Taiwan.


Pareas kuznetsovorum

Phu Yen Snail Eater, (Kuznetsovs' Snail Eater)

Phu-Yen-Schneckennatter

Phu Yen-sneglesnog

2022 Pareas kuznetsovorum Poyarkov, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Yushchenko, Brakels, Nguyen, Nguyen, Suwannapoom, Orlov & Vogel

Distribution: Vietnam.





Pareas macularius

Black-spotted Slug Eater, Spotted Slug Eater, Darjeeling Slug Eater

Schwarzfleckige Schneckennatter

Sortplettet Sneglesnog

1868 Pareas macularius Blyth
Amblycephalus macularius Boulenger 1890
1935 Amblycephalus tamdaoensis Bourret (Smith 1943)
Pareas macularius tamdaoensis Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009
Pareas tamdaoensis Welch 1988

Other common names:
tamdaoensis: Tamdao Slug Eater
Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of margaritophorus by Huang (2004), however, Hauser (2017) presented evidence that the two taxa are separate species. Previously included andersonii and modestus. Welch (1988) and Das (2010) treated tamdaoensis as a separate species. Not listed for China by Wang, Ren, Chen, Lyu, Guo, Jiang, Chen, Li, Guo, Wang & Che (2020).
Distribution: Bangladesh, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan), India (Sikkim, West Bengal), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.


Pareas margaritophorus

White-spotted Slug Eater, Northern Mountain Slug Snake

Weißfleckige Schneckennatter

Hvidplettet Sneglesnog

1866 Leptognathus margaritophorus Jan in Bocourt
Pareas margaritophorus Theobald 1876
Amblycephalus margaritophorus Boulenger 1896
1885 Pareas moellendorffi Boettger (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Amblycephalus moellendorffi Boulenger 1896

Remarks: Das (2007) included Brunei in the distribution of margaritophorus, but the species was not regarded as a Bornean species by Stuebing, Inger & Lardner (2014). The latter authors are followed herein.
Introduced to: Singapore.
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong), India (Mizoram), Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.


Pareas modestus

Black Slug Eater

Schwarze Schneckennatter

Sort Sneglesnog

1868 Pareas modestus Theobald
Amblycephalus modestus Boulenger 1890

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of macularius (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated by Vogel, Nguyen, Lalremsanga, Biakzuala, Hrima & Poyarkov (2020).
Distribution: India (Mizoram), Myanmar.





Pareas monticola

Assam Slug Eater, (Mountain Slug Snake)

Assam-Schneckennatter

Assam-sneglesnog

1839 Dipsas monticola Cantor
Pareas monticola Günther 1864
Amblycephalus monticola Boulenger 1890

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal, Vietnam.


Pareas niger

Mengzi Slug Eater

Mengzi-Schneckennatter

Mengzi-sneglesnog

1928 Amblycephalus niger Pope
Pareas niger Welch 1988
2020 Pareas mengziensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo (syn. Liu & Rao 2021)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of chinensis, komaii, or yunnanensis (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993). Revalidated as a separate species by Liu & Rao (2021), although already treated as such by Welch (1988), but without discussion. Unaware of the validity of niger, Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo (2020) described the species as mengziensis, which has consequently become a synonym of niger.
Distribution: China (Yunnan).





Pareas nigriceps

Black-headed Slug Eater

Schwarzkopf-Schneckennatter

Sorthovedet Sneglesnog

2009 Pareas nigriceps Guo & Deng

Distribution: China (Yunnan).


Pareas nuchalis

Barred Slug Eater

Gebänderte Schneckennatter

Asiatisk Båndet Sneglesnog

1900 Amblycephalus nuchalis Boulenger
Pareas nuchalis Haas 1950

Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak).


Pareas stanleyi

Fujian Slug Eater

Fujian-Schneckennatter

Fujian-sneglesnog

1914 Amblycephalus stanleyi Boulenger
Pareas stanleyi Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1917 Amblycephalus sinensis Stanley (Zhao & Adler 1993)

Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang).


Pareas temporalis

Lam Dong Slug Eater, Di Linh Slug Eater

Lam-Dong-Schneckennatter

Lam Dong-sneglesnog

2021 Pareas temporalis Le, Tran, Hoang & Stuart

Distribution: Vietnam.





Pareas victorianus

Victoria Snail Eater

Victoria-Schneckennatter

Victoria-sneglesnog

2020 Pareas victorianus Vogel, Nguyen, Zaw & Poyarkov

Distribution: Myanmar.





Pareas vindumi

Kachin Slug Eater, (Vindum's Slug Eater)

Kachin-Schneckennatter

Kachin-sneglesnog

2015 Pareas vindumi Vogel

Distribution: China (Yunnan), Myanmar.


Pareas xuelinensis

Xuelin Slug Eater

Xuelin-Schneckennatter

Xuelin-sneglesnog

2021 Pareas xuelinensis Liu & Rao

Distribution: China (Yunnan).





Pareas yunnanensis

Yunnan Slug Eater

Yunnan-Schneckennatter

Yunnan-sneglesnog

1922 Amblycephalus yunnanensis Vogt
Pareas yunnanensis Welch 1988

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of chinensis (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993). Revalidated as a separate species by Guo, Wang & Rao (2020).
Distribution: China (Yunnan).