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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae Biodiversity of the family Colubridae

Bibliography of the family
Colubridae (Typical Snakes or Colubrids)

(Reptilia: Serpentes)

Note: In order to limit redundancy, relevant literature indexed in the related bibliographies in the left column may not have been included in this page. For a comprehensive search of literature, these bibliographies should therefore also be consulted.


Abegg, A.D.; Entiauspe-Neto, O.M.; Lema, T. de 2015. First record of albinism in the Elapomorphini tribe (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 8: 503-505.

Aldridge, R.D.; Goldberg, S.R.; Wisniewski, S.S.; Bufalino, A.P.; Dillman, C.B. 2009. The reproductive cycle and estrus in the colubrid snakes of temperate North America. Contemporary Herpetology 2009(4): 1-31.

Alemán, C. 1952. Apuntes sobre reptiles y anfibios de la region Baruta-El Hatillo. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle 12(31): 11-30.

Alemán, C. 1953. Contribution al estudio de los reptiles y batracios de la Sierra de Perija. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle 13(35): Unpaginated.

Alencar, L.R.V.; Gaiarsa, M.P.; Martins, M. 2013. The evolution of diet and microhabitat use in pseudoboine snakes. South American Journal of Herpetology 8(1): 60-66.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Amaral, A. do 1930. Notes on two colubrine snakes. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 4: 12-13.

Andersson, L.G. 1901. Some new species of snakes from Cameroon and South America, belonging to the collections of the Royal Museum in Stockholm. Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar (Stockholm) 27(4)(5): 26 pp.

Andonov, K.; Natchev, N.; Kornilev, Y.V.; Tzankov, N. 2017. Does sexual selection influence ornamentation of hemipenes in Old World snakes? Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 300(9): 1680-1694

Bailey, J.R. 1951. Adaptive radiation in the snakes of the tribe Pseudoboini. (Abstract). Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 67(2): 183-184.

Bailey, J.R. 1966. Modes of evolution in New World opisthoglyph snakes. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 33: 67-72.

Bailey, J.R. 1967. The synthetic approach to colubrid classification. Herpetologica 23: 155-161.

Becak, M.L.; Becak, W.; Pereira, A. 2003. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 75(3): 285-300.

Billing, H.; Ziswiler, V. 1981. Adaptationen am Verdauungstrakt extrem nahrungsspezialisierter Schlangenarten der Familie Colubridae. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 88(4): 835-845.

Bogert, C.M. 1940. Herpetological results of the Vernay Angola Expedition. With notes on African reptiles in other collections. 1. Snakes, including an arrangement of African Colubridae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 77(1): 1-107.

Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1. Typhlopidae, Glauconiidae, Boidae, Ilysiidae, Uropeltidae, Xenopeltidae, Colubridae (aglyphae, part). Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 448 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2. Colubridae (aglyphae, conclusion). Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 382 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 3. Colubridae (opisthoglyphae and proteroglyphae), Amblycephalidae, Viperidae. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 727 pp.

Boundy, J.; Rossman, D.A. 1995. Allocation and status of the garter snake names Coluber infernalis Blainville, Eutaenia sirtalis tetrataenia Cope and Eutaenia imperialis Coues and Yarrow. Copeia 1995(1): 236-240.

Bower, D.S.; Valentine, L.E.; Grice, A.C.; Hodgson, L.; Schwarzkopf, L. 2014. A trade-off in conservation: Weed management decreases the abundance of common reptile and frog species while restoring an invaded floodplain. Biological Conservation 178: 123-128.

Branch, W.R. 1981. The venomous snakes of southern Africa. 3. Concluding part: Colubridae. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 17(4): 125-150.

Branch, W.R. 1982. Venomous snakes of South Africa, 3. Concluding part: Colubridae. The Snake 14(1): 1-17.

Brongersma, L.D. 1958. Some features of the Dipsadinae and Pareinae (Serpentes, Colubridae). Proceedings Akad. Wet. Amst. 61C: 7-12.

Bronzini, E. 1944. Note sulla riproduzione in cattivita del cervone (Elaphis quaterradiatus) Latr. Acta pont.acad. Scient. 8(5): 20-38.

Brummer, B.J. 1981. The taxonomic significance of vertebrae from recent colubrid snake genera of North America (north of Mexico). Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering 41(12): 4413.

Burbrink, F.T.; Lawson, R. 2007. How and when did Old World ratsnakes disperse into the New World? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43(1): 173-189.

Burbrink, F.T.; Pyron, R.A. 2010. How does ecological opportunity influence rates of speciation, extinction, and morphological diversification in New World ratsnakes (tribe Lampropeltini)? Evolution 64(4): 934-943.

Burbrink, F.T.; Ruane, S.; Pyron, R.A. 2012. When are adaptive radiations replicated in areas? Ecological opportunity and unexceptional diversification in West Indian dipsadine snakes (Colubridae: Alsophiini). Journal of Biogeography 39(3): 465-475.

Burghardt, G.M. 1993. The comparative imperative: genetics and ontogeny of chemoreceptive prey responses in natricine snakes. Brain Behavior and Evolution 41(3-5): 138-146.

Cadle, J.E. 1984. Molecular systematics of Neotropical xenodontine snakes. 1. South American xenodontines. Herpetologica 40(1): 8-20.

Cadle, J.E. 1984. Molecular systematics of Neotropical xenodontine snakes. 2. Central American xenodontines. Herpetologica 40(1): 21-30.

Cadle, J.E. 1984. Molecular systematics of Neotropical xenodontine snakes. 3. Overview of xenodontine phylogeny and the history of New World snakes. Copeia 1984(3): 641-652.

Cadle, J.E. 1985. The Neotropical colubrid snake fauna (Serpentes: Colubridae): lineage components and biogeography. Systematic Zoology 34(1): 1-20.

Capula, M.; Filippi, E.; Luiselli, L. 1995. Annual mating in female colubrid snakes with irregular reproductive frequency (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 8(1-2): 11-15.

Chen, X.; Huang, S.; Guo, P.; Colli, G.R.; Nieto-Montes de Oca, A.; Vitt, L.J.; Pyron, R.A.; Burbrink, F.T. 2013. Understanding the formation of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions using Asian and Neotropical hinged-teeth snakes (Sibynophis and Scaphiodontophis: Serpentes: Colubridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66(1): 254-261.

Chiszar, D.; Smith, H.M. 2002. Colubrid envenomations in the United States. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 21(1-2): 85-104.

Crother, B.I. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among West Indian xenodontine snakes (Serpentes; Colubridae) with comments on the phylogeny of some mainland xenodontines. Contemporary Herpetology 1999(2): (alpha.selu.edu/~pcsd4805/ch/1999/2/index/htm).

Crother, B.I.; Hillis, D.M. 1995. Nuclear ribosomal DNA restriction sites, phylogenetic information, and the phylogeny of some xenodontine (Colubridae) snakes. Journal of Herpetology 29(2): 316-320.

Cundall, D.; Shardo, J. 1995. Rhinokinetic snout of thamnophiine snakes. Journal of Morphology 225(1): 31-50.

Cunha, O.R. da; Nascimento, F.P. do 1981. Ofidios da Amazonia. 13. Observacoes sobre a viviparidade em ofidios do Para e Maranhao (Ophidia: Aniliidae, Boidae, Colubridae e Viperidae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Nova Serie Zoologia 109: 1-20.

Das, A. 2013. Notes on ratsnakes from north-eastern India. pp. 309-336. In: Schulz, K.D. (ed.). Old World ratsnakes: a collection of papers. Bushmaster Publications, Berg. 432 pp.

David, P.; Vogel, G. 2010. Venomous snakes of Europe, Northern, Central, and Western Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 162 pp.

Dessauer, H.C. 1967. Molecular approach to the taxonomy of colubrid snakes. Herpetologica 23: 148-155.

Domergue, C.A. 1988. Notes sur les serpents de la region malgache. 8. Colubridae nouveaux. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 10(1): 135-146.

Dowling, H.G.; Highton, R.; Maha, G.C.; Maxson, L.R. 1983. Biochemical evaluation of colubrid snake phylogeny. Journal of Zoology (London) 201(3): 309-329.

Drummond, H. 1985. The role of vision in the predatory behaviour of natricine snakes. Animal Behaviour 33(1): 206-215.

Drummond, H.M. 1980. Aquatic foraging in some New World natricine snakes: generalists and specialists and their behavioral evolution. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering 41(5): 1610-1611.

Dunn, E.R. 1928. A tentative key and arrangement of the American genera of Colubridae. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2(1): 18-24.

Dunn, E.R. 1928. New Central American snakes in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates 314: 1-4.

Dunn, E.R. 1940. Notes on some American lizards and snakes in the Museum of Goteborg. Herpetologica 1940(1): 189-194.

Ehmann, H. 1993. Family Colubridae. pp. 290-294. In: Glasby, C.J.; Ross, G.J.B. & Beesley, P.L. (eds.). Fauna of Australia. Vol. 2A. Amphibia & Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 439 pp.

Eipper, S. 2012. A Guide to Australian Snakes in Captivity: Elapids and Colubrids. Australian Birdkeeper / Reptile Publications, Burleigh, Queensland. 280 pp.

El-Toubi, M.R.; Kamal, A.M.; Hammouda, H.G. 1965. The phylogenetic relationship between the ophidian families Boidae, Colubridae and Viperidae in the light of the developmental study of the skull. Zoologischer Anzeiger 175: 289-294.

Espinoza, N.C. de 1977. New records of colubrid snakes from Peru, with notes on their ecology and distribution. Herpetological Review 8(3): 3.

Fesser, R. 2013. Forty years of husbandry and breeding of Old World ratsnakes - a summary. pp. 417-422. In: Schulz, K.D. (ed.). Old World ratsnakes: a collection of papers. Bushmaster Publications, Berg. 432 pp.

Feuillee-Billot, A. 1925. Les serpents qui ressemblent aux vipères. Nature (Paris) 1925(2675): 25-31.

Gaiarsa, M.P.; Alencar, L.R.V.; Valdujo, P.H.; Tambosi, L.R.; Martins, M. 2015. Setting conservation priorities within monophyletic groups: an integrative approach. Journal for Nature Conservation 24: 49-55.

Gehlbach, F.R. 1970. Death-feigning and erratic behaviour in leptotyphlopid, colubrid, and elapid snakes. Herpetologica 26: 24-34.

Gehlbach, F.R.; Watkins, J.F.; Kroll, J.C. 1971. Pheromone trail following studies of typhlopid, leptotyphlopid, and colubrid snakes. Behaviour 40: 282-294.

Geniez, P.; Grillet, P. 1989. Les couleuvres et les viperes. Payot, Lausanne. 64pp.

Golay, P.; Smith, H.M.; Broadley, D.G.; Dixon, J.R.; McCarthy, C.; Rage, J.C.; Schätti, B.; Toriba, M. 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world: a checklist. Azemiops, Geneva, Switzerland. 478 pp.

Gove, D.; Burghardt, G.M. 1983. Context-correlated parameters of snake and lizard tongue-flicking. Animal Behaviour 31(3): 718-723.

Grassman, L.I. 1998. Stomach contents of an Asiatic golden cat. Cat News 1998: 20-21.

Grazziotin, F.G.; Zaher, H.; Murphy, R.W.; Scrocchi, G.J.; Benavides, M.A.; Zhang, Y.P.; Bonatto, S.L. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics 28(5): 437-459.

Gregory, P.T. 2016. Responses of natricine snakes to predatory threat: a mini-review and research prospectus. Journal of Herpetology 50(2): 183-195.

Gutierrez, J.M.; Sasa, M. 2002. Bites and envenomations by colubrid snakes in Mexico and Central America. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 21(1-2): 105-115.

Haan, C.C. de 2003. Sense-organ-like parietal pits found in Psammophiini (Serpentes, Colubridae). Comptes Rendus Biologies 326(3): 287-293.

Hailey, A.; Davies, P.M.C. 1986. Lifestyle, latitude and activity metabolism of natricine snakes. Journal of Zoology Series A 209(3): 461-476.

Hailey, A.; Davies, P.M.C.; Pulford, E. 1982. Lifestyle and thermal ecology of natricine snakes. British Journal of Herpetology 6(7): 261-268.

Haines, T.P. 1967. Variations of colubrid skulls, their correlations and their value in taxonomy. Herpetologica 23: 142-145.

Harding, K.A.; Welch, K.R.G. 1980. Venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. Pergamon, New York. 188 pp.

Heimes, P. 2009. Echte und Falsche Korallenschlangen. Aquaristik Fachmagazin & Aquarium Heute 41(1)(205): 82-89.

Helfenberger, N.; Schulz, K.D. 2013. A checklist of the extinct taxa allied to the Old World ratsnakes, with remarks on the phylogeny and radiation of Elaphe, Rhinechis and Zamenis. pp. 423-427. In: Schulz, K.D. (ed.). Old World ratsnakes: a collection of papers. Bushmaster Publications, Berg. 432 pp.

Herrel, A.; Vincent, S.E.; Alfaro, M.E.; Wassenbergh, S. van; Vanhooydonck, B.; Irschick, D.J. 2008. Morphological convergence as a consequence of extreme functional demands: examples from the feeding system of natricine snakes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21(5): 1438-1448.

Hess, P.L.; Squaiella-Baptistao, C.C. 2012. Toxinas animais: serpentes da família Colubridae e seus venenos. Estudos de Biologia (Curitiba) 34(83): 135-142.

Hewitt, J. 1911. Note on the relationship of the maxilla of Vipera to that of Colubridae. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 3(2): 93-95.

Holtzinger-Tenever, H. 1920. Zamenis tripostocularis spec. nov. Zoologischer Anzeiger 52: 66.

Hoser, R.T. 2013. Stopping the shuffle between families: six new colubroid snake families named. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 17: 3-21.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1982. Opinion 1201. Elapidae Boie, 1827 (Reptilia, Serpentes): ruling to stabilize nomenclature of taxa in this family (and others). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 39(1): 21-26.

Jackson, M.K.; Reno, H.W. 1975. Comparative skin structure of some fossorial and subfossorial leptyphlopid and colubrid snakes. Herpetologica 31(3): 350-359.

Jenner, J.V. 1981. A zoogeographic study and the taxonomy of the xenodontine colubrid snakes. Ph.D. thesis, New York University, New York.

Jenner, J.V. 1982. A zoogeographic study and the taxonomy of the xenodontine colubrid snakes. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering 42(7): 2736.

Jenner, J.V.; Dowling, H.G. 1985. Taxonomy of American xenodontine snakes: the tribe Pseudoboini. Herpetologica 41(2): 161-172.

Kardong, K.V. 1983. The evolution of the venom apparatus in snakes from colubrids to viperids and elapids. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 46 [1982]: 105-118.

Kardong, K.V. 2002. Colubrid snakes and Duvernoy's "venom" glands. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 21(1-2): 1-19.

Kelly, C.M.R.; Barker, N.P.; Villet, M.H.; Broadley, D.G. 2009. Phylogeny, biogeography and classification of the snake superfamily Elapoidea: a rapid radiation in the Late Eocene. Cladistics 25(1): 38-63.

Kelly, C.M.R.; Branch, W.R.; Broadley, D.G.; Barker, N.P.; Villet, M.H. 2011. Molecular systematics of the African snake family Lamprophiidae Fitzinger, 1843 (Serpentes: Elapoidea), with particular focus on the genera Lamprophis Fitzinger 1843 and Mehelya Csiki 1903. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 58(3): 415-426.

King, R.B.; Jadin, R.C.; Grue, M.; Walley, H.D. 2009. Behavioural correlates with hemipenis morphology in New World natricine snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98(1): 110-120.

King, R.B.; Lawson, R. 1996. Sex-linked inheritance of fumarate hydratase alleles in natricine snakes. Journal of Heredity 87(1): 81-83.

Kiran, U. 1981. A new structure in the lower jaw of colubrid snakes. The Snake 13(2): 131-133.

Klaczko, J.; Sherratt, E.; Setz, E.Z.F. 2016. Are diet preferences associated to skulls shape diversification in xenodontine snakes. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0148375.

Klingenberg, R.J. 1991. Egg-binding in colubrid snakes. Vivarium (Lakeside) 3(2): 32-35.

Knight, A.; Mindell, D.P. 1994. On the phylogenetic relationship of Colubrinae, Elapidae, and Viperidae and the evolution of front-fanged venom systems in snakes. Copeia 1: 1-9.

Kolby, J.; Lazell, J. 2001. Amazing snake. Porcupine 22: 9-10.

Kuch, U.; Mebs, D. 2002. Envenomations by colubrid snakes in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 21(1-2): 159-179.

Kwet, A.; Di-Bernardo, M. 2001. Das Araukarienplateau von Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien, und seine Herpetofauna. 5. Die Nattern (Colubriden) des Araukarienwaldes. Aquarium (Bornheim) 389: 65-72.

Lahav, S.; Dmi'el, R. 1996. Skin resistance to water loss in colubrid snakes: ecological and taxonomical correlations. Ecoscience 3(2): 135-139.

Lawson, R. 1986. Molecular systematics of some Old World natricine snakes. pp. 227-234. In: Rocek, Z. (ed.). Studies in herpetology. Proceedings of the European herpetological meeting (3rd ordinary general meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica), Prague 1985. Charles University, Prague. 754 pp.

Leitao de Araujo, M. 1978. Notas sobre ovos de serpentes (Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae). Iheringia (Zoologia) 51: 9-37.

Lema, T. de 2003. Geographical distribution of chromatic patterns in elapomorphine snakes (Colubridae), and species groups. Comunicacoes do Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia da PUCRS Serie Zoologia 16(1): 17-37.

Li, D. 1989. A survey of reptiles in Leigongshan area. pp. 269-275. In: Matsui, M.; Hikida, T. & Goris, R.C. (eds.). Current Herpetology in East Asia. Proceedings of the Second Japan-China Herpetological Symposium Kyoto, July 1988. Herpetological Society of Japan, Kyoto, Japan. 521 pp.

Lisle, H.F. de 1982. Venomous colubrid snakes. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 17(1): 1-17.

Liu, Y.; Ding, L.; Lei, J.; Zhao, E.M.; Tang, Y. 2012. Eye size variation reflects habitat and daily activity patterns in colubrid snakes. Journal of Morphology 273(8): 883-893.

Lopez, T.J.; Maxson, L.R. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and genetic differentiation among colubrine snakes (Reptilia: Colubridae: Colubrinae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 23(5): 487-505.

Lopez, T.J.; Maxson, L.R. 1996. Albumin and mitochondrial DNA evolution: phylogenetic implications for colubrine snakes (Colubridae: Colubrinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 17(3): 247-259.

Mackessy, S.P. (ed.) 2002. Toxinology of colubrid snakes: biology, venoms, and envenomation. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 21(1-2): 1-201.

Maglio, V.J. 1970. West Indian xenodontine colubrid snakes: their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 141: 1-54.

Malnate, E.V. 1963. Systematics and evolution of the Natricinae. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herpetological Society 10(4) [1962]: 20-23.

Mangili, E. 1947. Osservazioni su la riproduzione in cattivita di alcune specie di ofidii Italiani. Acta pont.acad. Scient. 11(20): 235-246.

Mattison, C. 1988. Raising baby colubrid snakes. Snake Keeper 2(7): 12-15.

McCoy, C.J.; Flores-Villela, O.A. 1988. The identity of Coluber nutkensis (Reptilia: Serpentes). Canadian Field-Naturalist 102(4): 716-718.

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