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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: May 12th, 2024.

Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Dispholidus
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae




Afrikanske Gifttræsnoge, Boomslanger

1829 Bucephalus Smith [not Bucephalus Baer 1826 (Trematoda)] (type species: Bucephalus typus Smith 1829)
1830 Erymnus Wagler (type species: Coluber macrolepidotus Shaw = Bucephalus typus Smith 1829; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1832 Dispholidus Duvernoy (type species: Dispholidus lalandii Duvernoy 1832)
1843 Dryomedusa Fitzinger (type species: Dendrophis colubrina Schlegel 1837)
Contents: 5 species, of which 2 (40.0%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Although reported from Djibouti by some authors [as D. typus] (Spawls & Branch 1995; David & Ineich 1999), presence in the country needs confirmation. It was not listed for the country by Nistri & Vanni (2014). Records from Niger [as D. typus] (e.g., Spawls & Branch 1995; David & Ineich 1999) are regarded as erroneous, since the species was not included for the country by Trape & Mané (2015).
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago), Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Pemba, Zanzibar), Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Dispholidus kivuensis

Kivu Boomslang, Kivu Large Green Tree Snake



1955 Dispholidus typus kivuensis Laurent
Dispholidus kivuensis Pietersen, Verburght & Davies 2021

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of typus. Treated herein as a separate species, following Pietersen, Verburght & Davies (2021).
Distribution: Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.

Dispholidus pembae

Pemba Boomslang



2021 Dispholidus pembae Hughes

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of typus.
Distribution: Tanzania (Pemba).

Dispholidus punctatus

Spotted Boomslang, Angolan Boomslang

Gefleckter Boomslang

Plettet Gifttræsnog, Plettet Boomslange

1955 Dispholidus typus punctatus Laurent
Dispholidus punctatus Trape & Collet 2021

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of typus (e.g., Laurent 1955). Revalidated as a separate species by Trape & Collet (2021).
Distribution: Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia.

Dispholidus typus

Cape Boomslang, Common Boomslang, Brown/Black/Cape/Back-fanged Tree Snake

Kap-Boomslang, Gewöhnlicher Boomslang

Kap-Boomslange, (Almindelig Afrikansk Gifttræsnog, Almindelig Boomslange)

1828 Bucephalus typus Smith
Dispholidus typus Boulenger 1896
1829 Bucephalus bellii Smith (Broadley & Wallach 2002)
1829 Bucephalus gutturalis Smith (Broadley & Wallach 2002)
1829 Bucephalus jardineii Smith (Broadley & Wallach 2002)
1832 Dispholidus lalandii Duvernoy (Broadley & Wallach 2002)
1837 Dendrophis colubrina Schlegel (Broadley & Wallach 2002)
1841 Bucephalus capensis Smith (Broadley & Wallach 2002)

Remarks: Now restricted to South Africa (Broadley & Blaylock 2013). Previously included kivuensis, punctatus, viridis, and the population now assigned to pembae. Status of many older records of typus from outside South Africa needs further studies.
Correct year of original description is 1828, not 1829 (David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: South Africa (Eastern Cape, Western Cape).

Dispholidus typus
© Rune Midtgaard

Dispholidus viridis

Green Boomslang, Northern Boomslang

Grüner Boomslang

Grøn Gifttræsnog

1841 Bucephalus viridis Smith
Bucephalus capensis viridis Müller 1885
Dispholidus typus viridis Laurent 1958
Dispholidus viridis Pietersen, Verburght & Davies 2021
1848 Dendrophis pseudodipsas Bianconi (Broadley & Wallach 2002 [by implication])
1937 Thrasops jacksonii mossambicus Mertens (Broadley & Wallach 2002 [by implication])
1961 Dispholidus typus occidentalis Perret (Broadley & Wallach 2002 [by implication])

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of typus. Treated herein as a separate species, following Pietersen, Verburght & Davies (2021).
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa (Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape), Zambia, Zimbabwe.