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Taxonomy of the family Crocodylidae
Bibliography of the genus Crocodylus
Biodiversity of the family Crocodylidae




Genus
Crocodylus

True Crocodiles

Echte Krokodile

Egentlige Krokodiller

1768 Crocodylus Laurenti (type species: Crocodilus vulgaris Cuvier 1807)
1789 Crocodilus Bonnaterre [substitute name for Crocodylus Laurenti 1768] (syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1789 Crocodilus Gmelin [substitute name for Crocodylus Laurenti 1768] (syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1820 Champse Merrem (type species: Crocodilus biscutatus Cuvier 1807; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1844 Oopholis Gray (type species: Crocodilus oopholis Schneider 1801; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1844 Palinia Gray (type species: Crocodilus rhombifer Cuvier 1807; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1844? Motinia Gray (type species: Crocodilus americanus Laurenti 1768; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1862 Bombifrons Gray (type species: Crocodilus bombifrons Gray 1844; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1862 Molinia Gray [substitute name for Motinia Gray 1844]
1862 Temsacus Gray (type species: Crocodilus intermedius Graves 1819; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1874 Philas Gray (type species: Crocodilus johnsoni Krefft 1873; syn. Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Contents: 13 species.
Extinct in: Algeria, Bahamas, Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman, Little Cayman), China, Haiti (incl. Ile de la Gonâve, Île-à-Vache), India (Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab), Indonesia (Komodo), Iraq, Israel, Mali, Mexico (Sonora), Morocco, Niger, Philippines (Calamian Islands, Busuanga, Culion, Masbate, Samar, Sulu Islands [Jolo]), Venezuela [Margarita], Western Sahara.
Introduced to: Bahamas, Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman), South Africa (Eastern Cape), United Arab Emirates, USA (Alabama).
Distribution: North, Central, and South America, West Indies, Africa, Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia, Indian and western Pacific Ocean.
Reported from: Angola, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia), Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Costa Rica, Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Curacao, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Guanaja, Roatan, Utila]), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Babi, Bacan, Banyak Islands, Buru, Buton, Flores, Halmahera, Java, Kai Islands, Kalimantan, Lombok, Riau Islands, Rinca, Seram, Simeulue, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Talaud Islands, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Waigeo, Western New Guinea), Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar (incl. Nosy Be), Malawi, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Martinique, Mauritania, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias: Maria Madre], Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Micronesia (Pohnpei), Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago: Benguerua), Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia (incl. Loyalty Islands), Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea (incl. Admiralty Islands [Manus], Bismarck Archipelago [New Britain, New Ireland], d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson], Eastern New Guinea, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville]), Peru, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Dalupiri], Dinagat, Catanduanes, Dumaran, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros), Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Santa Cruz Islands), Somalia, South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar), Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Uganda, USA (Florida), Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Crocodylus acutus

American Crocodile

Spitzkrokodil

Amerikansk Spidskrokodille

1807 Crocodilus acutus Cuvier
1807 Crocodilus biscutatus Cuvier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1869 Alligator lacordairei Preudhomme de Borre (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1870 Crocodilus lewyanus Dumeril & Bocourt (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus acutus lewyanus Müller & Hellmich 1940
1870 Crocodilus pacificus Dumeril & Bocourt (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1875 Crocodilus floridanus Hornaday (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Remarks: Records of acutus from E. Mexico (Gulf coastal plain and Tamaulipas) are questionable since the species has been confused with moreleti until recently (see Ross 1987). A single record from Alabama (USA), apparently based on a released captive or a straggler (Mount 1975). The species has also been reported from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands (Powell & Henderson (eds.) 2012), apparently a vagrant individual.
Extinct in: Bahamas (Little Bahama Bank: Grand Bahama Island), Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Little Cayman), Haiti (Ile de la Gonâve, Île-à-Vache), Mexico (Sonora), Venezuela (Isla Margarita).
Introduced to: Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman), USA (Alabama).
Distribution: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Curacao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Guanaja, Roatan, Utila]), Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias: Maria Madre], Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, USA (Florida), Venezuela.


Crocodylus intermedius

Orinoco Crocodile

Orinoko-Krokodil

Orinoco-krokodille

1819 Crocodilus intermedius Graves
1824 Crocodilus journei Bory (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1861 Mecistops batyrhynchus Cope (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Remarks: Recorded from Trinidad and Grenada, based on vagrant individuals. No resident populations are established on these islands (Thorbjarnarson & Franz 1987; Powell & Henderson (eds.) 2012).
Distribution: Colombia, Grenada (vagrants), Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad) (vagrants), Venezuela.


Crocodylus johnstoni

Australian Freshwater Crocodile, Freshy, (Johnstone's Crocodile, Johnston's Crocodile, Johnson's Crocodile)

Australien-Krokodil

Australsk Ferskvandskrokodille

1873 Crocodilus johnsoni Krefft
1874 Crocodilus johnstoni Gray [justified emendation] (Tucker 2010)
1985 Philas webbi Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)
2012 Oopholis jackyhoserae Hoser (Kaiser, Crother, Kelly, Luiselli, O'Shea, Ota, Passos, Schleip & Wüster 2013)

Remarks: Tucker (2010) reviewed the confused history of the specific epithet of this species, concluding that the correct spelling is johnstoni, not johnsoni.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Crocodylus mindorensis

Philippine Freshwater Crocodile, Mindoro Crocodile

Philippinen-Krokodil

Filippinsk Ferskvandskrokodille*

1935 Crocodylus mindorensis Schmidt
Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis Wermuth & Mertens 1961

Remarks: Presumably extirpated in Calamian Islands (Busuanga, Culion), Masbate, Samar, and Sulu Islands (Alcala 1986; Trutnau & Sommerlad 2006).
Extinct in: Philippines (Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Culion], Masbate, Samar, Sulu Islands [Jolo]).
Distribution: Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Dalupiri], Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros).


Crocodylus moreletii

Central American Crocodile, Belize Crocodile, (Morelet's Crocodile)

Beulenkrokodil

Centralamerikansk Krokodille*, (Morelets Krokodille)

1851 Crocodilus moreletii Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
1869 Crocodilus mexicanus Bocourt (Ross & Ross 1987)

Remarks: There are doubtful records from Colima and the Pacific versant of Chiapas.
Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan).


Crocodylus niloticus

Nile Crocodile

Nilkrokodil

Nilkrokodille

1768 Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti
1768 Crocodilus africanus Laurenti (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus niloticus africanus Fuchs 1974
1807 Crocodilus vulgaris Cuvier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1824 Crocodilus chamses Bory (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus niloticus chamses Fuchs 1974
1826 Crocodilus multiscutatus Rüppell (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1827 Crocodilus complanatus Geoffroy (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1827 Crocodilus lacunosus Geoffroy (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1827 Crocodilus marginatus Geoffroy (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1831 Crocodilus octophractus Rüppell (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1857 Crocodilus binuensis Baikie (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1872 Crocodilus madagascariensis Grandidier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus niloticus madagascariensis Fuchs 1974
1872 Crocodilus robustus Vaillant & Grandidier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1937 Alligator cowiei Smith (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei Fuchs 1974
1948 Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus Deraniyagala (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1948 Crocodylus niloticus worthingtoni Deraniyagala (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Other common names:
africanus: Southeast African Nile Crocodile*
chamses: Central African Nile Crocodile*
cowiei: South African Nile Crocodile*
madagascariensis: Madagascar Nile Crocodile*
niloticus: Northeast African Nile Crocodile*
pauciscutatus: East African Nile Crocodile*
Remarks: Previously included suchus (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977) which was revalidated as a separate species by Schmitz, Mansfeld [Mausfeld], Hekkala, Shine, Nickel, Amato & Böhme (2003). Previously found as far north as Israel and Iraq, but today the most northerly populations are found in southern Egypt. Believed to have been extinct temporarily in Egypt in the 1960s (and still reported so by Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2002), but today a viable population exsists in the southern part of the country (Baha el Din 2006). Known in the Comoro Archipelago from just a single observation (Benson 1960) which probably was an erratic specimen (Meirte 2004).
Extinct in: Iraq, Israel.
Introduced to: South Africa (Eastern Cape), United Arab Emirates.
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Botswana, Burundi, Comoro Archipelago, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Egypt, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Madagascar (incl. Nosy Be), Malawi, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago [Benguerua]), Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa (Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province), South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Crocodylus novaeguineae

New Guinea Freshwater Crocodile

Neuguinea-Krokodil

Papuansk Ferskvandskrokodille*

1928 Crocodilus novae-guineae Schmidt
2012 Oopholis adelynhoserae Hoser (Kaiser, Crother, Kelly, Luiselli, O'Shea, Ota, Passos, Schleip & Wüster 2013)

Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson], Eastern New Guinea).


Crocodylus palustris

Mugger, Marsh Crocodile, Swamp Crocodile

Sumpfkrokodil

Sumpkrokodille

1831 Crocodilus palustris Lesson
1831 Crocodilus vulgaris indicus Gray (suppressed: ICZN 1962: Opinion 624)
1844 Crocodilus bombifrons Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1844 Crocodilus trigonops Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1933 ? Champse brevirostris Werner (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodylus palustris brevirostris Wettstein 1958
1936 Crocodylus palustris kimbula Deraniyagala (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Other common names:
kimbula: Sri Lanka Mugger
palustris: Indian Mugger
Remarks: Became extinct in Bhutan in the 1960s, but was later reintroduced again (Whitaker & Andrews 2003). Records from Myanmar are regarded as erroneous (Whitaker & Andrews 2003*), although reported by some authors (e.g., Daniel 1983; King & Burke 1989; Zug, Leviton, Vindum, Wogan & Koo 2010).
Extinct in: Bangladesh, India (Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, West Bengal).
Distribution: Bhutan (see remarks), India (Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand), Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Crocodylus porosus

Saltwater Crocodile, Indo-Pacific Crocodile, Estuarine Crocodile, Salty

Salzwasserkrokodil, Leistenkrokodil

Saltvandskrokodille, Deltakrokodille, Listekrokodille

1801 Crocodilus porosus Schneider
1801 Crocodilus oopholis Schneider (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1807 Crocodilus biporcatus Cuvier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
Crocodilus porosus biporcatus Mertens 1960
1862 Oopholis pondicherianus Gray (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1953 Crocodylus porosus australis Deraniyagala (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1955 Crocodylus porosus minikanna Deraniyagala (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1985 Crocodylus pethericki Wells & Wellington (status uncertain)

Remarks: Extinct in the wild in China (Zhao & Adler 1993; Fu 1994) and possibly Vietnam (Stuart, Hayes, Manh & Platt 2002; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009). Although reported to occur as far east as Fiji (McCoy 1980; Rooij 1915; Wermuth & Mertens 1977), it is not found in these islands (Morrison 2003). There are confirmed sightings of vagrant individuals, but no established population in New Caledonia (Bauer & Sadlier 2000), in Micronesia (Zug 2013), and in Nauru (Zug 2013). In Tamil Nadu, India, the breeding population is considered extinct (Daniel 1983; Vos 1984), however, vagrant individuals are occasionally observed (Anonymous 1982).
Extinct in: China, India (Andhra Pradesh, Kerala), Indonesia (Komodo).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia), Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Babi, Bacan, Banyak Islands, Buru, Buton, Flores, Halmahera, Java, Kai Islands, Kalimantan, Lombok, Riau Islands, Rinca, Seram, Simeulue, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Waigeo, Western New Guinea), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei), Myanmar, Nauru, New Caledonia (incl. Loyalty Islands), Palau, Papua New Guinea (incl. Admiralty Islands [incl. Manus], Bismarck Archipelago [incl. New Britain, New Ireland], Eastern New Guinea, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville], Philippines (Catanduanes, Dinagat, Dumaran, Luzon), Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Santa Cruz Islands), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam.


Crocodylus raninus

Bornean Swamp Crocodile

Borneo-Salzwasserkrokodil*

Borneo-saltvandskrokodille*

1844 Crocodilus biporcatus raninus Müller & Schlegel
Crocodilus raninus Ross 1990

Remarks: Previously (and still by some authors) regarded as a synonym of porosus (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Distribution: Brunei, Malaysia (Sarawak).


Crocodylus rhombifer

Cuban Crocodile

Kubakrokodil, Rautenkrokodil

Cubansk Krokodille

1807 Crocodilus rhombifer Cuvier
1819 ? Crocodilus planirostris Graves (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)
1824 ? Crocodilus gravesii Bory [substitute name for Crocodilus planirostris Graves 1819]

Extinct in: Bahamas, Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman).
Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).


Crocodylus siamensis

Siamese Freshwater Crocodile

Siam-Krokodil

Siamesisk Krokodille

1801 Crocodilus siamensis Schneider
1807 Crocodilus galeatus Cuvier (Wermuth & Mertens 1977)

Remarks: Rediscovered within recent years in Laos (Mateus 2001; Sawathvong 1994; Stuart & Platt 2000) and Cambodia (Daltry & Chheang 2000; Platt, Sovannara, Kheng, Stuart & Walston 2006). A single, extant population in Vietnam (in 2005) as well as a reintroduced population (Bezuijen, Simpson, Behler, Daltry & Tempsiripong 2012).
Extinct in: Indonesia (Java), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar.
Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia (Kalimantan), Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.


Crocodylus suchus

West African Crocodile, West African Nile Crocodile

Westafrikanisches Krokodil

Vestafrikansk Krokodille*

1807 Crocodilus suchus Geoffroy
Crocodylus niloticus suchus Fuchs 1974

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Schmitz, Mansfeld, Hekkala, Shine, Nickel, Amato & Böhme (2003). Not all subsequent works have accepted suchus as a valid species (e.g., Brito, Martínez-Freiría, Sierra, Sillero & Tarroso 2011).
Extinct in: Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara.
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.