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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Oxybelis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Oxybelis

Neotropical Vine Snakes, American Vine Snakes, Horsewhip Snakes

Spitznattern

Nordlige Spidssnoge

1824 Dryinus Wagler in Spix [not Dryinus Merrem 1820 (Reptilia: Serpentes); not Dryinus Latreille 1804 (Insecta); not Dryinus Fabricius 1805 (Insecta)] (type species: Dryinus aeneus Wagler 1824)
1830 Oxybelis Wagler (type species: Dryinus aeneus Wagler 1824)
1848 Plastor Gistel [substitute name for Oxybelis Wagler 1830 erroneously believed preoccupied by Oxybelus Fabricius]
Contents: 12 species, of which 4 (33.3%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included Philodryas argentea and P. georgeboulengeri.
Distribution: SW. USA, Mexico, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Roatan, Utila]), Mexico (Aguascalientes, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Cleofas, Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Mujeres], San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz [Isla Grande del Maiz, Isla Pequeña del Maiz]), Panama, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), USA (Arizona), Venezuela (incl. Los Testigos, Isla Margarita).

Oxybelis acuminatus

Atlantic Forest Vine Snake

Mata-Atlantica-Spitznatter

Mata Atlantica-spidssnog

1824 Coluber acuminatus Wied
Dryophis acuminatus Fitzinger 1826
Oxybelis acuminatus Cope 1862

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of aeneus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Keiser 1974). Revalidated by Jadin, Jowers, Orlofske, Duellman, Blair & Murphy (2021).
Distribution: Brazil (Atlantic Forest). Exact limits of distribution is currently unclear.
Reported from: Brazil (Espirito Santo).





Oxybelis aeneus

Brown Vine Snake, Narrow-headed Brown Vine Snake, Neotropical Vine Snake, Ashy Tree Snake

Erzspitznatter

Brun Spidssnog

1824 Dryinus aeneus Wagler
Dryophis aeneus Fitzinger 1826
Oxybelis aeneus Wagler 1830
1825 Dryinus auratus Bell (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Keiser 1974)
Dryiophis aurata Schlegel 1837
Oxybelis aeneus auratus Bogert & Oliver 1945
Oxybelis auratus Hall 1951

Remarks: Previously included acuminatus, microphthalmus, potosiensis, vittatus, and the populations now assigned to inkaterra, koehleri, and rutherfordi. Exact distribution boundaries are still unclear, but assumed to include Amazonian parts of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Distribution: The Amazon Basin.
Reported from: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.


Oxybelis brevirostris

Short-nosed Vine Snake

Kurzschnauzen-Spitznatter

Kortsnudet Spidssnog

1861 Dryophis brevirostris Cope
Oxybelis brevirostris Boulenger 1896
1863 Oxybelis coerulescens Jan (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.


Oxybelis fulgidus

Green Vine Snake, Green Whip Snake, Emerald Tree Snake

Glanzspitznatter

Grøn Spidssnog

1803 Coluber fulgidus Daudin
Oxybelis fulgidus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
1837 Dryiophis catesbyi Schlegel (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Piaui, Rondonia, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Utila]), Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago), Venezuela.


Oxybelis fulgidus
© Rune Midtgaard

Oxybelis inkaterra

Peruvian Vine Snake, (Inkaterra Vine Snake)

Peruvianische Spitznatter

Peruviansk Spidssnog

2021 Oxybelis inkaterra Jadin, Jowers, Orlofske, Duellman, Blair & Murphy

Remarks: Known from only few localities, but expected to have a wider range.
Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.





Oxybelis koehleri

Guatemalan Vine Snake, (Köhler's Vine Snake)

Guatemalische Spitznatter

Guatemalansk Spidssnog

2020 Oxybelis koehleri Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of aeneus.
Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Roatan, Utila]), Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz [Isla Grande del Maiz, Isla Pequeña del Maiz]).


Oxybelis koehleri
© Henrik Bringsøe

Oxybelis microphthalmus

Thornscrub Vine Snake

Westmexikanische Spitznatter

Vestmexicansk Spidssnog

1926 Oxybelis microphthalmus Barbour & Amaral

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of aeneus (e.g., Schmidt 1953; Keiser 1974). Revalidated by Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy (2020).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Cleofas, Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena)]), Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona).





Oxybelis potosiensis

Gulf Coast Vine Snake

Ostmexikanische Spitznatter

Østmexicansk Spidssnog

1941 Oxybelis potosiensis Taylor

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of aeneus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Keiser 1974). Revalidated by Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy (2020). Presence in Nuevo Leon needs confirmation (Lemos-Espinal, Smith & Cruz 2018 [as aeneus]). Records of aeneus from Chiapas are tentatively regarded herein as potosiensis, but it is unclear whether microphthalmus or koehleri may be present in the state.
Distribution: Belize, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Mujeres], San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan).





Oxybelis rutherfordi

Trinidad Vine Snake, (Rutherford's Vine Snake)

Trinidad-Spitznatter

Trinidad-spidssnog

2020 Oxybelis rutherfordi Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of aeneus. Exact distribution boundaries are still unclear. Records of aeneus from Guyana and Surinam are tentatively regarded herein as rutherfordi, since the species is present on both sides of these countries in Venezuela and French Guiana.
Distribution: French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Los Testigos, Isla Margarita).





Oxybelis transandinus

Bosqueira Vine Snake

Bosqueira-Spitznatter

Bosqueira-spidssnog

2021 Oxybelis transandinus Torres-Carvajal, Mejía-Guerrero & Terán

Distribution: Ecuador.





Oxybelis vittatus

Striped Vine Snake

Gestreifte Spitznatter

Stribet Spidssnog

1854 Dryophis vittatus Girard
Oxybelis vittatus Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy 2020

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of aeneus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Keiser 1974). Revalidated by Jadin, Blair, Orlofske, Jowers, Rivas, Vitt, Ray, Smith & Murphy (2020). The species has only been confirmed from Panama, but some records of aeneus west of the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru may represent vittatus, pending further studies, whereas aeneus is assumed to be present east of the Andes in all three countries. Status of inter-Andean and northern Colombian records of aeneus is unclear.
Distribution: Panama.





Oxybelis wilsoni

Yellow Vine Snake

Gelbe Spitznatter

Gul Spidssnog

1995 Oxybelis wilsoni Villa & McCranie

Distribution: Honduras (Islas de la Bahia: Roatan).