Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates
Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: July 16th, 2024.


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Chironius
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Chironius

Sipos, Neotropical Whip Snakes, Southern Whip Snakes

Sipos

Sipoer

1826 Chironius Fitzinger (type species: Coluber carinatus Linnaeus 1758)
1826 Erpetodryas Boie (type species: not designated; syn, Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Herpetodryas Wagler 1830 [emendation of Erpetodryas Boie 1826]
1830 Macrops Wagler (type species: Coluber saturninus Linnaeus 1758; syn. Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
1843 Hylophis Fitzinger (type species: Coluber laevicollis Wied 1824; syn. Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
1862 Phyllosira Cope (type species: Phyllosira flavescens Cope 1862; syn. Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Contents: 26 species, of which 8 (30.8%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Distribution: Central America, South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao], Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (incl. Saint Vincent), Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Uruguay, Venezuela.

Chironius barrioi

Bolivian Sipo

Bolivianische Sipo

Boliviansk Sipo

1969 Chironius barrioi Donoso-Barros

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of scurrulus by some authors (e.g., Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), but as a valid species by Pincheira-Donoso (2002).
Distribution: Bolivia.


Chironius bicarinatus

Eastern Sipo, Two-keeled Whip Snake

Östliche Sipo

Østlig Sipo

1820 Coluber bicarinatus Wied
Natrix bicarinata Merrem 1820
Erpetodryas bicarinatus Boie 1826
Herpetodryas bicarinatus Wagler 1830
Herpetodryas carinatus bicarinatus Boettger 1898
Chironius bicarinatus Bailey 1955

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to gouveai. Currently regarded as restricted to Brazil. Following Entiauspe-Neto, Lyra, Koch, Quintela, Abegg & Loebmann (2020) and Nogueira & al. (2019), records from Bolivia as well as Distrito Federal, Maranhao, and Para (Brazil) are regarded as doubtful.
Introduced to: Uruguay.
Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraiba, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao], Sergipe).


Chironius brazili

Southeast Brazilian Sipo

Südostbrasilianische Sipo

Sydøstbrasiliansk Sipo

2015 Chironius brazili Hamdan & Fernandes

Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo).


Chironius carinatus

Yellow-lipped Sipo, Yellow-lipped Tree Snake, Machete Savane, (Golden Tree Snake)

Gelblippen-Sipo

Gullæbet Sipo

1758 Coluber carinatus Linnaeus
Natrix carinata Merrem 1820
Chironius carinatus Fitzinger 1826
Erpetodryas carinatus Boie 1826
Herpetodryas carinatus Wagler 1830
1798 Coluber chironius Donndorff (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
1845 Coluber pickeringii Hallowell (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)

Remarks: Previously included flavopictus and spixii, as well as the population now assigned to nigelnoriegai. Records from Trinidad refer to nigelnoriegai (Jadin, Jowers, Blair, Ludwig, Salgado-Irazabal & Murphy 2024).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Chironius challenger

Maringma Tepui Sipo

Maringma-Sipo

Maringma-sipo

2010 Chironius challenger Kok

Distribution: Guyana, Venezuela.


Chironius diamantina

Chapada Diamantina Sipo

Chapada-Diamantina-Sipo

Chapada Diamantina-sipo

2014 Chironius diamantina Fernandes & Hamdan

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).


Chironius dixoni

Beni Sipo

Beni-Sipo

Beni-sipo

1978 Chironius dixoni Wiest
1993 Chironius laurenti Dixon, Wiest & Cei (syn. Entiauspe-Neto & Loebmann 2019)

Remarks: Previously referred to as laurenti (e.g., Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993). Entiauspe-Neto & Loebmann (2019) demonstrated that the valid name for this species is dixoni.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul).





Chironius dracomaris

Baturité Sipo

Baturité-Sipo

Baturité-sipo

2024 Chironius dracomaris Sudré, Andrade-Junior, Folly, Azevedo, Avila, Curcio, Nunes & Passos

Distribution: Brazil (Ceara).





Chironius exoletus

Green Sipo, Common Southern Sipo, Common Sipo

Grüne Sipo, Gewöhnliche Sipo

Grøn Sipo, Almindelig Sipo

1758 Coluber exoletus Linnaeus
Natrix exoleta Laurenti 1768
Tyria exoleta Fitzinger 1826
Erpetodryas exoletus Boie 1826
Herpetodryas exoletus Wagler 1830
Chironius exoletus Hoge, Romano & Cordeiro 1978
1824 Coluber pyrrhopogon Wied (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993; Sudré, Curcio, Nunes, Pellegrino & Rodrigues 2017)
Chironius pyrrhopogon Bailey 1955
1896 Zaocys tornieri Werner 1896 (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Ptyas tornieri Welch 1988

Remarks: Overlooked in much older literature (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Hoge, Romano & Cordeiro (1978).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.

Chironius exoletus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Chironius flavolineatus

Yellow-striped Sipo, Brown-striped Whip Snake

Gelbstreifen-Sipo

Gulstribet Sipo

1863 Herpetodryas carinatus flavolineatus Jan
Herpetodryas flavolineatus Boettger 1885
Chironius flavolineatus Bailey 1955

Remarks: Hamdan, Scali & Fernandes (2014) redefined flavolineatus, designated a lectotype, and confirmed Jan (1863) as the correct authorship. A record from Peru (Lehr 2002) is regarded as erroneous (Hamdan & Fernandes 2015). Previously included the populations now assigned to brazili.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), French Guiana, Paraguay.


Chironius flavopictus

Yellow-spotted Sipo, Star Snake

Gelbfleckige Sipo

Gulplettet Sipo

1909 Herpetodryas carinatus flavopicta Werner
Chironius flavopictus Peters 1960

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of carinatus. Revalidated as a separate species by Hollis (2006).
Distribution: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama.


Chironius foveatus

Bahia Sipo, Coastal Sipo

Bahia-Sipo

Bahia-sipo

1955 Chironius foveatus Bailey
Chironius multiventris foveatus Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Hollis (2006).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio De Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]).


Chironius fuscus

Brown Sipo, Olive Whip Snake, Red-fronted Tree Snake, Green Tree Snake

Braune Sipo

Brun Sipo

1758 Coluber fuscus Linnaeus
Herpetodryas fuscus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Chironius fuscus Amaral 1929
1758 Coluber saturninus Linnaeus (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Macrops saturninus Wagler 1830
Herpetodryas saturninus Filippi 1840
1860 Herpetodryas sebastus Cope (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)

Remarks: Auth (1994) eroneously reported fuscus from Panama.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Chironius fuscus
© Henrik Bringsøe


Chironius gouveai

Uruguayan Sipo, (Gouvea's Sipo)

Uruguayische Sipo

Uruguayisk Sipo

2020 Chironius gouveai Entiauspe-Neto, Lyra, Koch, Quintela, Abegg & Loebmann

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of bicarinatus. Records of bicarinatus from Argentina and Paraguay are tentatively referred to gouveai, since they are geographically much closer to records of the latter species than the former. A record from Montevideo, Uruguay, is presumed to represent an introduced bicarinatus (Entiauspe-Neto, Lyra, Koch, Quintela, Abegg & Loebmann 2020).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay. Uruguay.





Chironius grandisquamis

Large-scaled Sipo, Ebony Keelback, Ecuadorian Sipo

Grossschuppige Sipo

Storskællet Sipo

1868 Spilotes grandisquamis Peters
Herpetodryas grandisquamis Cope 1875
Chironius fuscus grandisquamis Wettstein 1934
Chironius grandisquamis Taylor 1951
1886 Herpetodryas melas Cope (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Chironius melas Prado 1940
1899 Herpetodryas schlüteri Werner (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Chironius schlüteri Peters 1960
Chironius schlueteri Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1915 Herpetodryas vicinus Boulenger (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)

Remarks: Pérez-Santos & Moreno (1988) regarded melas and schlueteri as separate species. Also Almendáriz (1992) regarded schlueteri as a separate species.
Distribution: Bolivia, Colombia (incl. Gorgona Island), Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.


Chironius laevicollis

Smooth-necked Sipo, (Brown Whip Snake, Brazilian Sipo)

Glattnacken-Sipo

Glathalset Sipo

1824 Coluber laevicollis Wied
Erpetodryas laevicolis Boie 1826
Herpetodryas laevicollis Wagler 1830
Hylophis laevicollis Fitzinger 1843
Chironius laevicollis Bailey 1955

Remarks: Known from a single specimen from Paraguay which may have wrong locality data. Presence in the country needs confirmation (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993; Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith 2016).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]), Peru.


Chironius leucometapus

White-fronted Sipo, (Peruvian Whip Snake)

Weissstirn-Sipo

Hvidpandet Sipo

1993 Chironius fuscus leucometapus Dixon, Wiest & Cei
Chironius leucometapus Hollis 2006

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.


Chironius maculoventris

Spot-bellied Sipo, Chaco Sipo

Bauchfleckige Sipo

Bugplettet Sipo

1978 Chironius quadricarinatus maculoventris Wiest
Chironius maculoventris Hollis 2006

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay.


Chironius monticola

Mountain Sipo, Andean Sipo

Gebirgs-Sipo

Bjerg-sipo

1952 Chironius monticola Roze

Remarks: Presence in Surinam is based on a single specimen without exact locality data reported by Dixon, Wiest & Cei (1993). Presence in the country needs confirmation, considering the distance between Surinam and the remaining, verified range of the species.
Distribution: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Chironius multiventris

Peruvian Sipo, Long-tailed Sipo, (South American Sipo)

Peruvianische Sipo

Peruviansk Sipo

1943 Chironius multiventris Schmidt & Walker
1969 Chironius cochranae Hoge & Romano (Klaczko, Machado, Scrocchi & Zaher 2010)
Chironius multiventris cochranae Abuys 1982

Remarks: Hollis (2006) revalidated cochranae as a separate species, followed by Kok (2010), however, Klaczko, Machado, Scrocchi & Zaher (2010) synonymized it with multiventris. Not listed for Rio de Janeiro by Oliveira, Gonzalez, Passos, Vrcibradic & Rocha (2020).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Chironius nigelnoriegai

Trinidadian Sipo

Trinidad-Sipo

Trinidad-sipo

2024 Chironius nigelnoriegai Jadin, Jowers, Blair, Ludwig, Salgado-Irazabal & Murphy

Remarks: Previously regarded as the Trinidad population of carinatus (Jadin, Jowers, Blair, Ludwig, Salgado-Irazabal & Murphy 2024).
Distribution: Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad).





Chironius quadricarinatus

Paraguayan Sipo, Central Sipo

Paraguayische Sipo

Paraguayisk Sipo

1827 Erpetodryas 4-dricarinatus Boie
Herpetodryas quadricarinatus Wagler 1830
Chironius quadricarinatus Bailey 1955
1862 Phyllosira flavescens Cope (Bailey 1955; Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Chironius scurrulus

Rusty Sipo, Rusty Whip Snake, Green-headed Tree Snake

Rost-Sipo

Rust-sipo

1824 Natrix scurrula Wagler
Coluber scurrula Wagler 1830
Herpetodryas carinatus scurrula Jan 1863
Chironius scurrulus Hoge & Maranhao Nina 1960-62
1854 Dendrophis viridis Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
1876 Herpetodryas holochlorus Cope (Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993)
Chironius holochlorus Donoso-Barros 1969
Herpetodryas holochloris Malnate 1971

Remarks: Previously included barrioi.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Chironius septentrionalis

Northern Sipo, Forest Sipo

Nördliche Sipo

Nordlig Sipo

1978 Chironius multiventris septentrionalis Wiest
Chironius septentrionalis Hollis 2006

Remarks: Not listed for Brazil by Nogueira & al. (2019).
Distribution: Brazil (Roraima), Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Chironius spixii

Venezuelan Sipo

Venezuelanische Sipo

Venezuelansk Sipo

1845 Coluber Spixii Hallowell
Chironius spixii Donoso-Barros 1969
Chironius carinatus spixii Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of carinatus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated as a separate species by Hollis (2006), but already treated as such by Freiberg (1982).
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.


Chironius vincenti

Saint Vincent Sipo, Saint Vincent Racer

Saint-Vincent-Sipo

Saint Vincent-sipo

1891 Herpetodryas carinatus var. vincenti Boulenger
Herpetodryas vincenti Barbour 1914
Chironius vincenti Schwartz & Thomas 1975

Distribution: Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (Saint Vincent).