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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Ahaetulla
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Ahaetulla

Oriental Whip Snakes, Oriental Vine Snakes, Asian Long-nosed Tree Snakes

Orientalische Peitschennattern, Baumschnüffler

Orientalske Piskesnoge

1807 Ahaetulla Link (type species: Ahaetulla mycterizans Link 1807 [not Coluber mycterizans Linnaeus 1758] = Coluber nasutus Lacepede 1789)
1820 Dryinus Merrem (type species: Coluber mycterizans Linnaeus 1758)
1823 Dryophis Dalman [substitute name for Dryinus Merrem 1820]#
1830 Tragops Werner (type species: Dryophis prasina Reinwardt 1827)
1843 Herpetotragus Fitzinger (type species: Coluber nasutus Lacepede 1789)
1848 Dystyches Gistel [substitute name for Tragops Wagler 1830 erroneously believed preoccupied by Tragopa Latreille in Cuvier 1829 (Insecta)]
1860 Tropidococcyx Günther (type species: Psammophis perroteti Dumeril & Bibron 1854)
1886 Gephyrinus Cope (type species: Dryophis fronticinctus Günther 1858)
Contents: 18 species, of which 12 (66.7%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: For a long time known as Dryophis. Savage (1952) clarified the status of the names Ahaetulla, Dendrelaphis, Leptophis, and their synonyms. See ICZN (1958): Opinion 524. South American snakes of the genus Leptophis were previously assigned to Ahaetulla.
Distribution: S. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hunan, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Anambas Islands, Bali, Banggai Islands, Bangka, Batu Islands, Bawean Islands, Belitung, Buton, Flores, Java, Kabaena, Kalimantan, Kangean Islands, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Muna, Natuna Islands, Nias, Panaitan, Penida, Peucang, Riau Islands, Sangir Islands [Biaro, Sangir], Sebuku, Selayar, Siberut, Simeulue, Sipura, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Ternate, Togian Islands, Weh), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Aur, Tioman)]), Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Camiguin Norte], Balabac, Batan Islands [Batan, Itbayat], Bohol, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit], Coron, Culion, Camiguin Sur, Cebu, Dinagat, Leyte, Luzon, Mapun, Masbate, Mindanao, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Romblon, Samar, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Bongao, Jolo, Sangasanga, Siasi, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi], Tablas), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Ahaetulla anomala

Bengal Whip Snake, Variable-coloured Vine Snake

Bengal-Peitschennatter

Bengal-piskesnog

1906 Dryophis mycterizans anomalus Annandale
Ahaetulla anomala Mohapatra, Dutta, Kar, Das, Murthy & Deepak 2017

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nasuta (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated as a separate species by Mohapatra, Dutta, Kar, Das, Murthy & Deepak (2017). The exact distribution limits of anomala and oxyrhyncha are unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify this (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal),


Ahaetulla borealis

Northwest Indian Whip Snake

Nordwestindische Peitschennatter

Nordvestindisk Piskesnog

2020 Ahaetulla borealis Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of nasuta (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: India (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra).





Ahaetulla dispar

South Indian Whip Snake, (Günther's Whip Snake)

Südindische Peitschennatter

Sydindisk Piskesnog

1864 Tragops dispar Günther
Dryophis dispar Boulenger 1890
Ahaetulla dispar Murthy 1985

Remarks: Previously included the population now assigned to travancorica (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020). Records from Karnataka (e.g., Lewis, Piggott, Griffin, Greig-Smith, Martin, Barretto, Bajibab, Thorpe-Dixon, Prodromou, Fordham, Willis, Turner, Radovanovic & Holloway 2010; Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu, Achyuthan & Mohapatra 2013) need confirmation (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020, by implication).
Distribution: India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu).


Ahaetulla farnsworthi

Karnataka Whip Snake

Karnataka-Peitschennatter

Karnataka-piskesnog

2020 Ahaetulla farnsworthi Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of nasuta (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: India (Karnataka).





Ahaetulla fasciolata

Speckle-headed Whip Snake, Speckle-headed Vine Snake, Banded Vine Snake

Gefleckte Peitschennatter

Spæthovedet Piskesnog

1885 Tragops fasciolatus Fischer
Dryophis fasciolatus Lidth de Jeude 1890
Passerita fasciolatus Smedley 1932
Dryophis prasina fasciolata Günther 1895
Ahaetulla fasciolata Tweedie 1983

Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Natuna Islands, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Singapore, Thailand.


Ahaetulla fronticincta

Burmese Whip Snake, River Whip Snake, River Vine Snake, Burmese Vine Snake, (Common Green Whip Snake)

Burmesische Peitschennatter

Burmesisk Piskesnog

1858 Dryophis fronticinctus Günther
Tragops fronticinctus Günther 1864
Ahaetulla fronticinctus Murthy 1985

Remarks: In spite of several records from India (e.g., Smith 1943; Ahmed, Das & Dutta 2009; Ahmed & Dasgupta 1992; Das 1994, 1996, 2003; Sharma 2003; Whitaker & Captain 2004; Aengals, Kumar, Palot & Ganesh 2018), the presence of fronticincta in the country is doubtful. It has not been confirmed in recent surveys (I. Das, cited in the Reptile Database (reptile-database.reptarium.cz), viewed 13 April 2013; Wogan & Vogel 2020)
Distribution: Myanmar.


Ahaetulla isabellina

Isabella Whip Snake

Isabella-Peitschennatter

Isabella-piskesnog

1910 Dryophis mycterizans isabellinus Wall
Ahaetulla isabellina Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nasuta (e.g., Smith 1943). Raised to species status by Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh (2020).
Distribution: India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu).





Ahaetulla laudankia

Laudankia Whip Snake, Laudankia Vine Snake

Laudankia-Peitschennatter

Laudankia-piskesnog

2019 Ahaetulla laudankia Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra

Remarks: In their first description of laudankia, Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra (2019) mentioned the occurrence of the species in Maharashtra, but they did not refer to any voucher specimens, nor did they include any localities in Maharashtra in their distribution map.
Distribution: India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan), Nepal.





Ahaetulla malabarica

Malabar Whip Snake

Malabar-Peitschennatter

Malabar-piskesnog

2020 Ahaetulla malabarica Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of nasuta (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: India (Karnataka, Kerala).





Ahaetulla mycterizans

Big-eyed Green Whip Snake, Malayan Green Whip Snake, Malayan Vine Snake, (Common Green Whip Snake)

Großaugen-Peitschennatter

Storøjet Grøn Piskesnog

1758 Coluber mycterizans Linnaeus
Dryophis mycterizans Andersson 1899
Ahaetulla mycterizans Brongersma in Dammerman 1929
1827 Dryophis xanthozonia Boie (syn. Smith 1943)
Dryophis xanthozona [sic] Brongersma in Dammerman 1929
Passerita xanthozonia Smith 1930

Remarks: Probably due to confusion with nasuta or prasina, this species has mistakenly been reported from Bangladesh (Sarker & Sarker 1985), Cambodia (Deuve 1970), India (Ahmed & Dasgupta 1991), Laos (Deuve 1970), and Vietnam (Deuve 1970).
Distribution: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand.


Ahaetulla mycterizans
© Rune Midtgaard

Ahaetulla nasuta

Long-nosed Green Whip Snake, Long-nosed Whip Snake, Indian Vine Snake, (Common Green Whip Snake, Green Vine Snake)

Nasen-Peitschennatter

Spidssnudet Grøn Piskesnog, Langsnudet Piskesnog

1789 Coluber nasutus Lacepede
Dryinus nasutus Merrem 1820
Dryiophis nasuta Schlegel 1837
Dryophis nasutus Andersson 1898
Passerita nasuta Cochran 1930
Ahaetulla nasuta Stejneger 1933
1825 Dryinus oxyrhynchus Bell (syn. Smith 1943)
1854 Dryinus fuscus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (syn. David & Dubois 2005)
1908 Dryophis mycterizans cineroventer Wall (syn. Iskandar & Colijn 2001)
1908 Dryophis mycterizans rhodogaster Wall (syn. Smith 1943)
Ahaetulla nasuta rhodogaster Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra 2019
1908 Dryophis mycterizans tephrogaster Wall (syn. Smith 1943)
Ahaetulla nasuta tephrogaster Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra 2019
1910 Dryophis mycterizans isabellinus Wall (syn. Smith 1943)
Ahaetulla nasuta isabellina Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra 2019
1921 Dryophis mycterizans rhodonotus Wall (syn. Smith 1943; Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
Ahaetulla nasuta rhodonota Deepak, Narayanan, Sarkar, Dutta & Mohapatra 2019

Remarks: Previously included anomala, isabellina, oxyrhyncha, as well as the populations now assigned to borealis, farnsworthi, malabarica, and sahyadrensis. Peninsular Indian records of nasuta refer to these species. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh (2020) considered nasuta "endemic" to Sri Lanka, however, the authors refrained from making conclusions regarding the status of "extralimital populations" (i.e. populations from northern India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Southeast Asia), pending further studies.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Mizoram, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.


Ahaetulla nasuta
© Henrik Bringsøe

Ahaetulla oxyrhyncha

Southeast Indian Whip Snake

Südostindische Peitschennatter

Sydøstindisk Piskesnog

1825 Dryinus oxyrhynchus Bell
Ahaetulla oxyrhyncha Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020
1825 Dryinus russellianus Bell (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
1833 Dryophis passericki Schinz (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
1833 Dryophis rostratus Schinz (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nasuta (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated by Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh (2020). The exact distribution limits of anomala and oxyrhyncha are unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify this (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, West Bengal).





Ahaetulla perroteti

Bronze-headed Whip Snake

Bronzeköpfige Peitschennatter

Bronzehovedet Piskesnog

1854 Psammophis perroteti Dumeril & Bibron
Tropidococcyx perroteti Theobald 1868
Dryophis perroteti Boulenger 1890
Ahaetulla perroteti Murthy 1985
1853 Leptophis canarensis Jerdon (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
1858 Dryophis tropidococcyx Günther (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)

Remarks: There is a single record from "North Canara" (now Uttar Kannada, Karnataka), the type locality of Leptophis canarensis, which needs confirmation.
Distribution: India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu).


Ahaetulla prasina

Short-nosed Whip Snake, Yellow-green Whip Snake, Oriental Whip Snake, Oriental Vine Snake, Jade Vine Snake, Asian Vine Snake

Grüne Peitschennatter

Kortsnudet Grøn Piskesnog

1827 Dryophis prasina Reinwardt
Dryinus prasinus Cantor 1847
Tragops prasinus Duméril & Bibron 1854
Passerita prasina Stejneger 1922
Ahaetulla prasina Brongersma in Dammerman 1929
1802 Coluber nasutus Shaw [not Coluber nasutus Lacepede 1789] (syn. Zhao & Adler 1993)
1827 Dryophis pavoninus Boie (syn. Iskandar & Colijn 2001)
1885 Tragops prasinus citrina Müller (syn. Iskandar & Colijn 2001)
1915 Dryophis prasinus flavescens Smith (syn. Smith 1943)
1922 Dryophis griseus Taylor (syn. Leviton 1967)
1922 Dryophis preocularis Taylor
Ahaetulla prasina preocularis Leviton 1967
1930 Dryophis prasinus chinensis Mell (syn. Smith 1943)
1930 Dryophis prasinus indicus Mell (syn. Smith 1943)
1994 Ahaetulla prasina suluensis Gaulke
2002 Ahaetulla prasina medioxima Lazell

Other common names:
preocularis: Philippine Whip Snake, Philippine Vine Snake
suluensis: Sulu Whip Snake, Sulu Vine Snake
Remarks: Only two records from Hong Kong, China (Karsen, Lau & Bogadek 1998). Presence in Bhutan needs confirmation (Bauer & Günther 1992), although reported previously from the country (e.g., Welch 1988). Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Itbayat (Batan Islands) and Mapun in the distribution of the species.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Hunan, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Indonesia (Anambas Islands, Bali, Banggai Islands, Bangka, Batu Islands, Bawean Islands, Belitung, Buton, Flores, Java, Kabaena, Kalimantan, Kangean Islands, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Muna, Natuna Islands, Nias, Panaitan, Penida, Peucang, Riau Islands, Sangir Islands [Biaro, Sangir], Sebuku, Selayar, Siberut, Simeulue, Sipura, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Ternate, Togian Islands, Weh), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Aur, Tioman)]), Myanmar, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Camiguin Norte], Balabac, Batan Islands [Batan, Itbayat], Bohol, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit], Coron, Culion, Camiguin Sur, Cebu, Dinagat, Leyte, Luzon, Mapun, Masbate, Mindanao, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Romblon, Samar, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Bongao, Jolo, Sangasanga, Siasi, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi], Tablas), Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Ahaetulla prasina
© Rune Midtgaard

Ahaetulla pulverulenta

Brown Speckled Whip Snake, Brown Whip Snake, Thunderbolt Snake

Gesprenkelte Peitschennatter

Spættet Brun Piskesnog

1854 Dryinus pulverulentus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Dryophis pulverulentus Boulenger 1890
Ahaetulla pulverulenta Murthy 1985
1864 Passerita purpurascens Günther (syn. Smith 1943; Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
1955 Ahaetulla pulverulenta xanthiscuta Deraniyagala (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)

Remarks: Now endemic to Sri Lanka. Previously included the Peninsular Indian populations now referred to sahyadrensis (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020). Records from Jharkand, India, (Dasgupta & Raha 2004) and Bangladesh (Neumann-Denzau & Denzau 2010) are presumably based on confusion with other species.
Distribution: Sri Lanka.


Ahaetulla rufusoculara

Red-eyed Whip Snake, Red-eyed Vine Snake

Rotaugen-Peitschennatter

Rødøjet Piskesnog

2021 Ahaetulla rufusoculara Lam, Thu, Nguyen, Murphy & Nguyen

Distribution: Vietnam.





Ahaetulla sahyadrensis

Sahyadri Hills Whip Snake

Sahyadri-Peitschennatter

Sahyadri-piskesnog

1858 Passerita mycterizans var. fuscus Günther [not Dryinus fuscus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854] (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
1955 Dryophis pulverulenta indica Deraniyagala [not Dryophis prasinus indicus Mell 1930] (syn. Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020)
2020 Ahaetulla sahyadrensis Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh [substitute name for Passerita mycterizans var. fuscus Günther 1858]

Remarks: Previously regarded as the Indian population of pulverulenta (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020). Records from Gujarat need confirmation (Patel & Vyas 2019, as pulverulenta). Records from Rajasthan (e.g., Sharma 2000; Sharma, Rathor, Chawda & Patel 2001) are considered erroneous (Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu, Deepak, Achyuthan & Vyas 2013, as pulverulenta).
Distribution: India (Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).





Ahaetulla travancorica

Travancore Whip Snake

Travancore-Peitschennatter

Travancore-piskesnog

2020 Ahaetulla travancorica Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of dispar (Mallik, Srikanthan, Pal, D'Souza, Shanker & Ganesh 2020).
Distribution: India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu).