Cobras, Mambas, Sea Snakes, etc.
Giftnattern und Seeschlangen
Giftsnoge og Havslanger
(as of 15th June, 2021) ||Endemicity:
56 genera of which 23 (41.1%) are endemic ||0% 100%
395 species of which 204 (51.6%) are endemic ||0% 100%
This family now includes the sea snakes, formerly considered a separate family, Hydrophiidae.
Current knowledge support the inclusion of these snakes in one family, Elapidae, separating them only on the subfamily level
(e.g., Goin, Goin & Zug 1978; Slowinski, Knight & Rooney 1997; Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Nevertheless, the sea snakes are clearly distinguishable from the terrestrial species, even to layman, in their morphological adaptation of the oar-shaped tail
to their almost strictly marine life style and habitat.
For this reason, the terrestrial and marine species are treated separately herein, although recognized as part of the same family.
Of historical interest, Smith, Smith & Sawin (1977), based on unpublished material from Samuel McDowell, completely rearranged the taxonomy of Elapidae and
Hydrophiidae, retaining both families, but resulting in an arrangement which included terrestrial as well as marine genera in both families.
For suggested classifications placing genera outside the family Elapidae, see under each genus.
North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Middle East, S. Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia, Atlantic Ocean (Namibia), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean.
Central African Republic,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands,
Northern Mariana Islands,
Papua New Guinea,
Sao Tome & Principe,
Trinidad & Tobago,
United Arab Emirates,
Wallis & Futuna,