Taxonomy: families
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Snakes (Serpentes)

   Subdivision


Elapidae: part 1 [terrestrial species]
Cobras, Mambas, Coral Snakes, etc.


Elapidae: part 2 [marine species]
Sea Snakes




Elapidae

Cobras, Mambas, Sea Snakes, etc.
Giftnattern und Seeschlangen     Giftsnoge og Havslanger




Contents: (as of 15th June, 2021)  Endemicity:
56 genera of which 23 (41.1%) are endemic  0% 100%
395 species of which 204 (51.6%) are endemic  0% 100%

Remarks: This family now includes the sea snakes, formerly considered a separate family, Hydrophiidae. Current knowledge support the inclusion of these snakes in one family, Elapidae, separating them only on the subfamily level (e.g., Goin, Goin & Zug 1978; Slowinski, Knight & Rooney 1997; Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Nevertheless, the sea snakes are clearly distinguishable from the terrestrial species, even to layman, in their morphological adaptation of the oar-shaped tail to their almost strictly marine life style and habitat. For this reason, the terrestrial and marine species are treated separately herein, although recognized as part of the same family. Of historical interest, Smith, Smith & Sawin (1977), based on unpublished material from Samuel McDowell, completely rearranged the taxonomy of Elapidae and Hydrophiidae, retaining both families, but resulting in an arrangement which included terrestrial as well as marine genera in both families. For suggested classifications placing genera outside the family Elapidae, see under each genus.

Distribution:  North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Middle East, S. Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia, Atlantic Ocean (Namibia), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean.

Reported from:
Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Clipperton, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Djibouti, East Timor, Easter Island, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Galapagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kermadec Islands, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Korea, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, USA, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis & Futuna, Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.